ADINA Publications

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The Theory used in ADINA is richly documented in the following books by K.J. Bathe and co-authors


Finite Element Procedures
 

Finite Element Procedures in Engineering Analysis

Numerical Methods in Finite Element Analysis
 


The Mechanics of Solids and Structures — Hierarchical ...


The Finite Element Analysis of Shells — Fundamentals


Inelastic Analysis of Solids and Structures

 
 
To Enrich Life
(Sample pages here)
 

 

Following are more than 700 publications — that we know of — with reference to the use of ADINA. The pages give the Abstracts of some papers published since 1986 referring to ADINA. The most recent papers are listed first. All these papers may be searched using the box:

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Investigation of tire-wheel interface loads using ADINA

Sherwood, J.A. (Univ of Massachusetts-Lowell); Ayres, J.M.; Gross, T.S.; Watt, D. Source: Computers and Structures, v 56, n 2-3, Jul 17, 1995, p 377-387

ISSN: 0045-7949 CODEN: CMSTCJ

Publisher: Pergamon Press Inc

Abstract: Aircraft wheels are designed to exhibit a fail-safe point so that a crack in the wheel can be detected before any catastrophic failure occurs. Presently, engineers use intrusive instrumentation to directly measure the tire-wheel interface pressure distribution. The goal of the current research is to demonstrate a nonintrusive methodology for using experimental displacement data in conjunction with the finite element method to back calculate this pressure distribution. The result is a well calibrated and credible finite element model which can be used to investigate the structural performance of the wheel. (7 refs.)

Keywords:  Vehicle wheels  -  Aircraft parts and equipment  -  Loads (forces)  -  Computer software  -  Cracks  -  Tires  -  Failure (mechanical)  -  Finite element method  -  Computer simulation  -  Performance  -  Boundary conditions  -  Nondestructive examination

Secondary  Keywords:  Tire wheel interface loads  -  Software Package ADINA  -  Aircraft wheels  -  Fail safe point  -  Pressure distribution

 

Dynamic analysis of high-level waste storage tanks

R. Stuart, L. Shipley, A. Ghose and M. Hiremath

ARES Corporation, 220 Montgomery Street, Suite 319, San Francisco, CA 94104, U.S.A.

Computers & Structures, 56(2/3):415-424, 1995

Abstract: DOE “tank-farm” sites consist of a large number of underground high-level waste storage tanks (HLWST). Seismic analysis and design of HLWSTs requires proper evaluation of fluid-structure interaction and hydrodynamic pressure. Although simplified guidelines for such tanks are available, a rigorous analysis invariably necessitates detailed finite element modeling. A systematic step-by-step approach for dynamic analysis of a HLWST using ADINA fluid elements is presented here. Initially, an open liquidfilled cylindrical ground-supported tank model is set up and frequency analysis studies for different tank configurations conducted with displacement-based (D-fluid) and potential-based (P-fluid) elements. The results are compared with the available data. The procedure is then extended to analyze the response of the tank to El Centro 1940 earthquake ground history and results verified for displacements and hydrodynamic pressure. Although ADINA’s P-fluid elements give more accurate frequencies and pressure distributions than D-fluid elements, they cannot be at present used for seismic loading. The D-fluid elements are shown to perform adequately for practical problems under consideration.

 

A mixed displacement-based finite element formulation for acoustic fluid-structure interaction

K.J. Bathe, C. Nitikitpaiboon and X. Wang

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, U.S.A

Compulers & Structures 56:225-237, 1995

Abstract: The solutions of fluid-structure interaction problems, using displacement-based finite element formulations for acoustic fluids, may contain spurious non-zero frequencies. To remove this deficiency, we present here a new formulation based on a three-field discretization using displacements, pressure and a “vorticity moment” as variables with an appropriate treatment of the boundary conditions. We propose specific finite element discretizations and give the numerical results of various example problems.

Keywords: mixed displacement-based finite element formulation — acoustic fluid-structure interaction — three-field discretization — displacements — pressure — vorticity moment — boundary conditions — finite element discretizations — numerical results

 

 

Finite element analysis of the impact-contact problem of a portable telephone using I-DEAS and ADINA

Ho, H. (Memorex Telex Japan Ltd) Source: Computers and Structures, v 56, n 2-3, Jul 17, 1995, p 397-409

ISSN: 0045-7949 CODEN: CMSTCJ

Publisher: Pergamon Press Inc

Abstract: A finite element analysis has been carried out to simulate the phenomenon of a portable telephone that falls and collides with a rigid surface. The new I-DEAS Master Series has been used to create the complicated geometry and finite element mesh for the portable telephone model. The finite element data obtained in I-DEAS is converted to input data for the ADINA system by TRANSOR, an interface program between I-DEAS and ADINA. The large scale finite element model has been solved by the iterative solver on a SUN 4/10 engineering workstation. Interesting results at various stages are: free-fall, impact-contact and, rebound. The possibility of partial breaking of the portable telephone undergoing the impact-contact condition is also discussed. (15 refs.)

Keywords:  Finite element method  -  Telephone  -  Computer simulation  -  Computer software  -  Mathematical models  -  Problem solving  -  Iterative methods  -  Computer workstations  -  Computer systems  -  User interfaces

Secondary  Keywords:  Impact contact problem  -  Portable telephone  -  Software Package I-DEAS  -  Software Package ADINA  -  Iterative solver

 


Comparison of computational and experimental modal analyses of an armored vehicle hull with multiple access openings

Gupta, A.D. (U.S. Army Research Lab); Santiago, J.M.; Meyer, C. Source: Computers and Structures, v 56, n 2-3, Jul 17, 1995, p 411-414

ISSN: 0045-7949 CODEN: CMSTCJ

Publisher: Pergamon Press Inc

Abstract: A three-dimensional (3D) finite element model of a bare aluminum vehicle hull with multiple access openings for the driver's hatch, the commander's cupola, engine access opening, exhaust grills, cargo hatch, as well as rear door cutout, representing the basic hull of the armored personnel carrier (APC) M113A2 was generated using PATRAN 3 pre and post-processor program. Frequencies and modeshapes obtained using the ADINA finite element code were compared with available experimental modal analysis data for the counterpart hull. (10 refs.)

Keywords:  Military vehicles  -  Modal analysis  -  Computational methods  -  Three dimensional  -  Finite element method  -  Computer simulation  -  Mathematical models  -  Computer software  -  Codes (symbols)

Secondary Keywords:  Armored vehicle hull  -  Multiple access openings  -  Armored personnel carrier  -  Software Package PATRAN 3  -  Software Package ADINA


Analysis of reinforced concrete shear wall components using the ADINA nonlinear concrete model

Khatri, D. (Univ of Southern California); Anderson, J.C. Source: Computers and Structures, v 56, n 2-3, Jul 17, 1995, p 485-504

ISSN: 0045-7949 CODEN: CMSTCJ

Publisher: Pergamon Press Inc

Abstract: Two shear wall specimens loaded for experimental testing at the University of California, Berkeley, were modeled using the ADINA Nonlinear Finite Element Concrete Material Model with plane stress isoparametric finite elements. Force vs displacement results show good correlation with the experimental data. The models were loaded with monotonically increasing static loads. The analyses give an estimate of the displacement ductility available in shear walls. Using this technique, finite element modeling can be used for future structural applications to design for greater displacement ductility. (15 refs.)

Keywords:  Shear walls  -  Reinforced concrete  -  Nonlinear equations  -  Mathematical models  -  Computer simulation  -  Finite element method  -  Stresses  -  Loads (forces)  -  Structural design  -  Structural analysis

Secondary  Keywords:  Shear wall components  -  Nonlinear concrete model  -  Software Package ADINA

 


Three-dimensional finite element stress analysis of the polypropylene, ankle-foot orthosis: static analysis

Chu, T.-M. (New Jersey Inst of Technology); Reddy, N.P.; Padovan, J. Source: Medical Engineering & Physics, v 17, n 5, Jul, 1995, p 372-379

ISSN: 1350-4533 CODEN: MEPHEO

Publisher: Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd

Abstract: An asymmetric 3-dimensional finite element model (FEM) of the ankle-foot orthosis (AFO) together with the ankle-foot complex was developed using the computer aided design (CAD) program PATRAN. Static analysis of normal and pathological motions of the ankle-foot complex such as the 'drop-foot' problem were conducted using the FEM program ADINA. A total of 313 three dimensional solid elements and 10 truss elements were used. Heel strike and toe-off condition were simulated. Results revealed that the peak compressive stress (1.6 MPa) in the AFO model occurred in the heel regions of the AFO and the maximum tensile stress (0.8 MPa) occurred in the neck region of the AFO during toe-off. Parametric analyses revealed that the model was sensitive to the elastic moduli of the AFO and of the soft tissue, but was relatively insensitive to the ligament stiffness. The results confirmed the hypothesis that peak stresses in the orthosis occur in the heal and neck regions of the orthosis. (21 refs.)

Keywords:  Braces (for limbs and joints)  -  Stress analysis  -  Finite element method  -  Computer aided design  -  Three dimensional  -  Elastic moduli  -  Tissue  -  Stiffness  -  Ligaments  -  Computer simulation

Secondary Keywords:  Ankle-foot orthosis  -  Software Package ADINA  -  Tensile stress  -  Static analysis

 


Dynamic analysis of high-level waste storage tanks

Stuart, R. (ARES Corp); Shipley, L.; Ghose, A.; Hiremath, M. Source: Computers and Structures, v 56, n 2-3, Jul 17, 1995, p 415-424

ISSN: 0045-7949 CODEN: CMSTCJ

Publisher: Pergamon Press Inc

Abstract: DOE 'tank-farm' sites consist of a large number of underground high-level waste storage tanks (HLWST). Seismic analysis and design of HLWSTs requires proper evaluation of fluid-structure interaction and hydrodynamic pressure. Although simplified guidelines for such tanks are available, a rigorous analysis invariably necessitates detailed finite element modeling. A systematic step-by-step approach for dynamic analysis of a HLWST using ADINA fluid elements is presented here. Initially, an open liquid-filled cylindrical ground-supported tank model is set up and frequency analysis studies for different tank configurations conducted with displacement-based (D-fluid) and potential-based (P-fluid) elements. The results are compared with the available data. The procedure is then extended to analyze the response of the tank to El Centro 1940 earthquake ground history and results verified for displacements and hydrodynamic pressure. Although ADINA's P-fluid elements give more accurate frequencies and pressure distributions than D-fluid elements, they cannot be at present used for seismic loading. The D-fluid elements are shown to perform adequately for practical problems under consideration. (14 refs.)

Keywords:  Tanks (containers)  -  Fluid structure interaction  -  Hydrodynamics  -  Finite element method  -  Computer simulation  -  Earthquake effects  -  Earthquake resistance  -  Pressure  -  Dynamic response  -  Mathematical models  -  Frequencies

Secondary  Keywords:  High level waste storage tanks  -  Dynamic analysis  -  Seismic analysis  -  Displacements  -  Seismic loading

 


Effects of rock mass anisotropy and non-linearity on the near face stresses in deep tunnels

Pelli, F.; Kaiser, P.K.; Morgenstern, N.R. Source: Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, v 28, n 2, Apr-Jun, 1995, p 125-132

ISSN: 0723-2632 CODEN: RMREDX

Publisher: Springer-Verlag Wien

Abstract: The near face stresses in unlined, deep tunnels were investigated. The results of truly three-dimensional finite element analyses are presented, where a non-axisymmetric stress field was considered. The analyses were carried out assuming different constitutive relationships for the rock mass. In particular, linear elastic isotropic, linear elastic transverse isotropic, nonlinear elastic and nonassociated elastoplastic constitutive relationships were adopted. (13 refs.)

Keywords:  Rock mechanics  -  Tunnels  -  Stress analysis  -  Anisotropy  -  Finite element method  -  Elastoplasticity  -  Elasticity  -  Computer software  -  Computer simulation  -  Stress concentration

Secondary Keywords:  Rock mass anisotropy  -  Near face stresses  -  Software package PISA  -  Software package ADINA

 


Fracture mechanics study of sliding contacts in glassy polymers

Sadeghipour, Keyanoush (Temple Univ); Fu, Zhibao Source: American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Materials Division (Publication) MD, v 68, Mechanics of Plastics and Plastic Components, 1995, p 11-22

CODEN: AMEMD9

Conference: Proceedings of the 1995 ASME International Mechanical Congress and Exposition, Nov 12-17 1995, San Francisco, CA, USA Sponsor: ASME

Publisher: ASME

Abstract: Recently, there has been some concerns regarding the use of polymer based composite materials in lieu of metallic restorative materials. Our efforts are targeted towards polymers used in dental restorative materials which behave in a brittle manner. The material currently under investigation is a possible replacement for metallic dental restorative materials. In this study, we seek to develop a finite element elasto-plastic model of cylinder micro-indentation and sliding contact as a means of eventually modelling the pin-on-disc wear test, used to cause fatigue wear. ADINA 6.1 commercial finite element package was used to perform this task. The primary objective of this paper is to study the distribution of the stresses and the corresponding strain behavior around the contact area in order to edify crack phenomena. To achieve this objective, sliding contact and fracture mechanics have been combined into a current plain stress vertical surface and horizontal subsurface crack analyses. The behavior of both of these cracks under different loading and material properties are fully investigated. The results so far show that, at certain loads, the crack tip locations, and specimen material properties such as elasticity or elastoplasticity can strongly effect the crack tip's behavior for both of these cracks. The results also show that the initial crack position strongly influences both the stress field and the crack propagation direction. (9 refs.)

Keywords:  Polymers  -  Glass  -  Fracture mechanics  -  Friction  -  Nonmetallic matrix composites  -  Mathematical models  -  Finite element method  -  Elastoplasticity  -  Crack propagation  -  Computer software  -  Wear of materials  -  Materials testing

Secondary  Keywords:  Sliding contacts  -  Glassy polymers  -  Pin on disc wear test  -  Cylinder micro indentation

 


Modal analysis of the low-pressure frame of steam turbine

Krawczuk, Marek (Polish Acad of Sciences); Ostachowicz, Wieslaw; Murawski, Lech; Cartmell, Matthew P. Source: American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Power Division (Publication) PWR, v 3, Power, 1995, p 275-287

CODEN: AMEPEJ

Conference: Proceedings of the 1995 International Joint Power Generation Conference. Part 3 (of 4), Oct 8-12 1995, Minneapolis, MN, USA Sponsor: ASME PWR

Publisher: ASME

Abstract: The objective of this paper is to present the application of the ADINA Finite Element code to the modal analysis of the whole of the low pressure part of a turbine frame. The model comprises a frame represented by isoparametric shell finite elements (each one having 8-nodes and 5 d.o.f per node) whereas the stiffeners are modelled by bar finite elements (each with 2 nodes and 3 d.o.f. per node). In this way the ultimate geometrical description of the system contains 12,000 nodes and above 40,000 d.o.f. It should be pointed out that the weight of the water inside the condenser is included in the analysis and the accurate deformations of the frame have been obtained by application of the modified Newton procedure. As a second step the natural frequencies and the mode shape have been calculated by means of the method of subspace iteration with acceleration. The results of the numerical calculations show that the forces acting on the frame influence the natural frequencies and the mode shapes. (2 refs.)

Keywords:  Steam turbines  -  Structural frames  -  Mathematical models  -  Finite element method  -  Computer software  -  Computer simulation  -  Stiffness  -  Computer aided analysis  -  Condensers (liquefiers)  -  Natural frequencies  -  Iterative methods  -  Modal analysis  -  Degrees of freedom (mechanics)

Secondary Keywords:  Newmark method  -  Software package ADINA  -  Isoparametric shell finite elements  -  Newton method

 


Nonlinear finite element modeling of the distal carpal arch

Nowak, Michael D. (Univ of Connecticut Health Cent); Cherry, Adina Source: American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Bioengineering Division (Publication) BED, v 31, 1995 Advances in Bioengineering, 1995, p 321-322

CODEN: ASMBEP

Conference: Proceedings of the 1995 ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, Nov 12-17 1995, San Francisco, CA, USA Sponsor: ASME BED

Publisher: ASME

Abstract: A two-dimensional finite element analysis (FEA) model of the distal carpal arch was presented, utilizing nonlinear mechanical properties for the ligaments. A simple compression of the arch before and after flexor retinaculum release was discussed. Two FEA models were compared for arch compression: one model evaluated the arch before and after release utilizing linear springs, and the other utilizing nonlinear spring values. Using nonlinear springs to represent ligaments is of great potential and their variation within a given ligament may be incorporated into a file for the specific bundle groups. Failure of the ligament fibers can be simulated into the FORTRAN file to have a more accurate analysis of carpal bone motion when a ligament is disrupted.

Keywords:  Bone  -  Mathematical models  -  Finite element method  -  Computer simulation  -  Springs (components)  -  FORTRAN (programming language)  -  Ligaments  -  Failure analysis

Secondary  Keywords:  Distal carpal arch

 


Effects of lap joints on damping, strength and stiffness for chevron-segmented fibrous composites

Finlinson, L.W. (Utah State Univ); Fronk, T.H.; Womack, K.C. Source: American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Noise Control and Acoustics Division (Publication) NCA, v 18, Materials for Noise and Vibration Control, 1994, p 87-96

CODEN: ASMNER

Conference: Proceedings of the 1994 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, Nov 6-11 1994, Chicago, IL, USA Sponsor: ASME

Publisher: ASME

Abstract: Passive damping for extensional loads can be created by special design of fibrous composites. The concept takes advantage of the shear coupling that occurs with off-axis loading. As fibers align themselves with the force, shearing occurs. The greatest shear occurs at ends that are free to move. Implementing a chevron pattern of segments for each lamina allows for more free ends and potentially more damping. Placing a viscoelastic material between plies of opposing angles allows for ease in shear and an increase in damping. The damping design, with cut sections, comes at the expense of strength. Lap joints have been considered for joining the segments and maintaining some degree of strength of the design. This paper addresses the effects of lap joints to both strength and damping. The finite element package ADINA has been used to model a single lap joint to show trends and establish a general understanding of cross-motion or shear coupling. Test specimens of varying lap joint lengths were constructed and tested against a non-segmented pattern. A significant increase in extensional damping is created with the pattern. The lap joint specimen without viscoelastic loses strength when compared to an uncut specimen. However, with the presence of a viscoelastic layer, the lap joints provide strength over a constrained layer design. (5 refs.)

Keywords:  Damping  -  Fiber reinforced materials  -  Joints (structural components)  -  Strength of materials  -  Finite element method  -  Computer simulation  -  Viscoelasticity  -  Stiffness

Secondary Keywords:  Chevron segmented fibrous composites  -  Software package - ADINA  -  Shear coupling

 


Coupled FDM/FEM model for the continuous casting process

Funk, G. (Univ of Siegen); Boehmer, J.R.; Fett, F.N. Source: International Journal of Computer Applications in Technology, v 7, n 3-6, 1994, p 214-228

ISSN: 0952-8091 CODEN: IJCTEK

Publisher: Inderscience Enterprises Ltd

Abstract: The solidification and further cooling as well as the formation of thermal stresses were investigated using a coupled mathematical model in order to derive a better understanding of the continuous casting process which is important in increasing productivity and quality of the product. Mass transport, solidification and/or remelting, and heat transfer were calculated using a finite difference method while thermal-mechanical stresses and strains were simulated with the ADINA program. Thermal and stress analysis were coupled to consider feedback. Attention was directed to the highly nonlinear material behaviour, and the three-dimensional and transient contact. The reliability of the solutions was dependent on the discretization and element configuration chosen. Alternative possibilities of various grids and material models were discussed with respect to accuracy and CPU-time. (9 refs.)

Keywords:  Mathematical models  -  Continuous casting  -  Finite element method  -  Finite difference method  -  Solidification  -  Cooling  -  Thermal stress  -  Defects  -  Productivity  -  Computer simulation  -  Nonlinear systems  -  Thermal effects  -  Three dimensional

Secondary Keywords:  Thermomechanical strains  -  Transient contact  -  Element strain formulation  -  Product quality improvement

 


Strength of tubular members containing holes

Hsu, T.M. (Chevron Petroleum Technology Co) Source: Journal of Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering, Transactions of the ASME, v 116, n 3, Aug, 1994, p 154-162

ISSN: 0892-7219 CODEN: JMOEEX

Publisher: ASME

Abstract: A small-scale, compressive-load test program was conducted at Chevron to determine the strength of tubular members with 1 to 3 holes. The parameters evaluated include the hole size, hole shape, hole location, and number of holes. Results from these tests provide a basis for platform ultimate strength calculations that are needed in making decisions on platform repairs. More than 50 specimens were tested in air under displacement control. Test specimen lengths were limited by the test apparatus to 45 in. (1,143 mm). Tubulars used in the test had an outside diameter of 3.5 in. (89 mm), which gave member slenderness ratios of about 40. The tests were needed because of the lack of relevant compression tests on members with holes. Based on test results, there appears to be a limiting value of hole size below which the compression-load capacity of the member is practically not affected by the existence of the hole. For example, a hole that is 10 percent of the member diameter does not significantly reduce member strength. This means remedial treatment is not necessary for many small holes, when ultimate strength is the controlling consideration. Nonlinear finite element shell analyses using both ADINA and FACTS computer programs and a simplified analysis using DENTA-II PC program were performed and results compared with data. We found that nonlinear finite element programs provide good predictions of capacities of members with holes, and that a simplified DENTA-II program provides adequate and efficient predictions.

Keywords:  Strength of materials  -  Structural members  -  Production platforms  -  Load testing  -  Test facilities  -  Compression testing  -  Load limits  -  Finite element method  -  Computer software  -  Data reduction  -  Repair  -  Data acquisition

Secondary Keywords:  Tubular members  -  Hole size  -  Hole shape  -  Hole location  -  Number of holes  -  Compressive load test program  -  Platform repairs  -  Slenderness ratio  -  Compression load capacity

 


Keynote paper: remarks on the development of finite element methods and software

Bathe, Klaus-Jurgen (Massachussetts Inst of Technology) Source: International Journal of Computer Applications in Technology, v 7, n 3-6, 1994, p 101-107

ISSN: 0952-8091 CODEN: IJCTEK

Publisher: Inderscience Enterprises Ltd

Abstract: A brief personal, historical account of some development of finite element methods and software is given, and then some recent advances are surveyed. The paper focuses on the research and developments of the author and his colleagues/students, and the developments of the programs SAP IV, NONSAP and ADINA. (37 refs.)

Keywords:  Finite element method  -  Computer software  -  Software engineering  -  History  -  Computer aided engineering  -  Computer programming

Secondary  Keywords:  Finite element software  -  Finite element development

 


Failure of integrally stiffened graphite/epoxy cylinders

Graves, Michael J. (Massachusetts Inst of Technology); Sawicki, Adam J. Source: Composite Structures, v 27, n 3, 1994, p 269-282

ISSN: 0263-8223 CODEN: COMSE2

Abstract: Nine sealed and pressurized graphite/epoxy cylinders were tested to examine the ability of stiffening strips to redirect propagating damage. The materials used were Hercules A370-5H/3501-6 prepreg fabric and AS4/3501-6 prepreg unidirectional tape. The layup of the unstiffened regions of the cylinders was four plies of fabric with the quasi-isotropic layup. Three different four ply unidirectional tape circumferential stiffener layups were tested. Cylinders were nominally 610 mm long with a radius of 152 mm. Stiffener width was 76 mm. Through-the-thickness slits of four lengths, 51 mm, 102 mm, 165 mm and 178 mm (1.0 mm wide), oriented along the axial direction were pre-cut into the cylinders. The cylinders were tested monotonically with increasing pressure till rupture. Stress-strain data were noted. The finite element code ADINA was used to examine the two-dimensional response of the cylinders. Three slit lengths were modeled to gain an understanding of the local stress and strain response ahead of the slit in the stiffened region. Contour plots of maximum strain and the orientation of these maximum values with respect to the load direction near slits and stiffened regions were generated. These analytical models showed lower strains in the stiffened regions ahead of the slit compared to the strains in the unstiffened regions. The local orientation of the maximum tensile strains in the stiffened regions ahead of the slit was also rotated with respect to the projected direction of the slit. At failure, propagating damage bifurcated prior to reaching the stiffener and progressed circumferentially before stopping. It is concluded that the maximum tensile strain and its orientation ahead of the slit as derived from the analysis plays a key role in the damage propagation in these cylinders. (26 refs.)

Keywords:  Composite structures  -  Graphite fiber reinforced plastics  -  Epoxy resins  -  Cylinders (shapes)  -  Pressure effects  -  Mechanical testing  -  Stress analysis  -  Strain  -  Crack propagation  -  Mathematical models  -  Finite element method  -  Failure (mechanical)

Secondary  Keywords:  Graphite/epoxy cylinders  -  Software package ADINA

 



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