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The Theory used in ADINA is richly documented in the following books by K.J. Bathe and co-authors



To Enrich Life
(Sample pages here)

To Download — Second Edition of the Book "Finite Element Procedures" (6th printing)

You are welcome to download the second edition of the book, 6th printing, however, please note that the book is copyrighted and should only be used in the same manner as a purchased hard-copy of the book.

Improved versions will be made available here, from time to time, as the 7th printing, and so on.

"Finite Element Procedures", 2nd Edition (.pdf)

Solutions to exercises in the book "Finite Element Procedures", 2nd Edition, 2014 are given in this manual (.pdf)

The Chinese translation of the 2nd edition is also available: Vol. 1 Vol. 2

Following are more than 700 publications — that we know of — with reference to the use of ADINA. Since there are numerous papers published in renowned journals, we can only give here a selection. The pages give the Abstracts of some papers published since 1986 referring to ADINA. The most recent papers are listed first. All these papers may be searched using the box:

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Research on properties of PZT piezoelectric ceramics by finite element softeware ADINA

Guo, C.J., Zhang, C.S.

Department of the Mechanical and Electrical, Shaanxi University of Science and Technoloty, Xi'an 710021, China

Applied Mechanics and Materials: Volume 130-134, 2012, Pages 3233-3236

Abstract: In this paper, the finite element model of piezoelectric ceramics in line with the experiment results was established according to piezoelectric structure field and the coupling of the electric field, deformation of representative PZT piezoelectric ceramics under the voltage was analysed in using finite element analysis software ADINA according to establishing geometric model, defining boundary conditions and materials, Coupling calculation. Consistency between simulation results and experimental results is improved and lay the foundation for the realization of the piezoelectric ceramic shapes and vibration control.

Keywords: Coupling effect - Finite element analysis - Piezoelectric ceramics


A numerical and experimental study of bearing stiffness of drilled shafts socketed in heterogeneous rock

Chung, J.H.1, Ko, J.2, Klammler, H.3, McVay, M.C.2, Lai, P.4

1 University of Florida, Bridge Software Institute, Department of Civil and Coastal Engineering, P.O. Box 116580, Gainesville, FL 32611, United States

2 University of Florida, Department of Civil and Coastal Engineering, United States

3 Federal University of Bahia, Department of Environmental Science and Sustainable Development, Barreiras, Bahia 47805-100, Brazil

4 Florida Department of Transportation, Structures Design Office MS 33, Tallahassee, FL 32399, United States

Computers and Structures: Volume 90-91, Issue 1, January 2012, Pages 145-152

Abstract: The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of spatial variability of rock elasticity on the tip resistance of drilled shafts using experimental tests, finite element analysis (FEA) and geostatistical principles. A mathematical and computational model for simulating the multi-dimensional soil-structure interaction is developed using the ADINA FEA program and validated using data obtained from laboratory and centrifuge tests. Subsequently, the FEA model is used to quantify the spatial variability effect on the bearing stiffness of the deep foundation. Using geostatistical principles, a relationship is derived between deterministic and probabilistic end bearing stiffnesses of the rock conditions.

Keywords: Bearing stiffness - Centrifuge testing - Finite element analysis - Soil-structure interaction - Spatial variability


Simulation of shape distortions during flat bottom raising process with titanium alloy sheet based on ADINA

Zhang, L.-Y , Han, Z.-R., Zhao, C.-B.

Key Lab. of Liaoning Province on Digital Process Simulation and Testing Technology, Shenyang Aerospace University, Shenyang 110136, China

Materials Science Forum: Volume 706-709, 2012, Pages 600-605

Abstract: Raising processes of titanium alloy sheets TC1M δ 1.45 were simulated based on ADINA FEA software. The shape distortions induced by plastic anisotropy during forming and springback processes were described. A series of forming tests were conducted for the comparison of simulation prediction and test measurements. Reasonable agreement was obtained between the predicted and measured profiles of formed parts, It shows that the ADINA software is suitable for the analysis of the forming and springback processes of anisotropic titanium alloy sheets. Two sorts of shape distortion phenomena exhibit in the raised workpieces fabricated in room temperature after springback or elastic recovery process: Firstly, the bottom of the flange in the specimen distorts to be a wavy surface and not a plane. There two high points and two low points, and the high points locate in the flange periphery along the transverse direction(TD), and the low points locate in the periphery along the rolling direction(RD); Secondly, the top surface of the raising specimen distorts to be a wavy surface too, and the distortion shape is similar to that in the flange. During thermoforming at 600°C, the elastic recovery can be suppressed effectively and the shape distortion resulted from springback processes can be eliminated, but the anisotropy characteristics of the titanium alloy sheets can not be changed, so forming at high temperature can not solve all the shape distortion problems except the distortion occurred for the reason of springback, unhomogeneous deformation in thickness still exists.

Keywords: Raising - Shape distortion - Springback - Titanium alloy sheet


The analysis of hip joint prosthesis head microstructure changes during variable stress state as a result of human motor activity

Szarek, A.1, Stradomski, G.2, Włodarski, J1

1 Czestochowa University of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Computer Science, Institute of Metal Working and Forming, Quality Engineering and Bioengineering, Poland

2 Czestochowa University of Technology, Faculty of Process and Materials Engineering and Applied Physics, Institute of Modelling and Automation of Plastic Working Processes, Poland

Materials Science Forum: Volume 706-709, 2012, Pages 600-605

Abstract: The paper present the analysis of metal prosthesis head stress state of hip joint endoprosthesis which is a result of variable loads during human motor activity and its influence on the erosion of materials. The analysis of stress state was made with use of FEM - ADINA numerical tool. The analysis of surface erosion process was made with use of the scanning electron microscope. To the researches was taken for heads from CoCrMo bearing shell and polyethylene UHMWPE.

Keywords: Endoprosthesis - Erosion - Hip joint - Numerical tool


Behavior of RC members strengthened in shear with EB FRP: Assessment of models and FE simulation approaches

Godat, A.1, Labossiére, P.2, Neale, K.W.2, Chaallal, O.1

1 Department of Construction Engineering, Université du Québec, École de Technologie Supérieure, Montreal, QC H3C 1K3, Canada

2 Department of Civil Engineering, Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, QC J1K 2R1, Canada

Computers and Structures: Volume 92-93, February 2012, Pages 269-282

Abstract: Numerical analyses are performed with the ADINA finite element (FE) package to predict the behavior of beams shear-strengthened using externally bonded (EB) fiber reinforced polymers (FRPs). Nonlinear material behavior of the plain concrete, steel reinforcing bars, FRP composites and FRP/concrete interface are simulated with appropriate constitutive models. In the FE analysis, the use of truss elements versus shell elements to simulate the behavior of the FRP composites is evaluated. The influence of three types of interface element to represent the FRP/concrete interfacial behavior is examined. These elements are spring elements, discrete truss elements and continuous truss elements. The appropriate interface element is selected on the basis of the best fit of numerical predictions obtained for a predetermined set of experimental data. In order to investigate the influence of including horizontal interface elements, the interfacial response is provided parallel and perpendicular to the fiber orientation to examine the horizontal component of the principal diagonal-tension stresses. It is shown that the approach identified to represent the FRPs and the FRP/concrete interfacial behavior can significantly influence the numerical predictions of FRP shear-strengthened beams.

Keywords: Fiber-reinforced polymer - Finite element modeling - FRP/concrete interface - Reinforced concrete beam - Shear strength - Strengthening


Analysis on the seismic response of Hangzhou metro tunnel in soft soils

Wang, G.1, Yao, J.2, Sha, L.3, Yu, L.1, Zheng, X.1

1 Department of Civil Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou, 310032, China

2 Institute of Architectural Design, Heifei University of Technology, Heifei, 230009, China

3 Department of Civil Engineering, Zhejiang College of Construction, Hangzhou, 311231, China

Advanced Materials Research: Volume 446-449, 2012, Pages 966-969

Abstract: A large number of earthquake disasters indicate that the underground structure, such as metro tunnel, is not safe and reliable as people think, and can also be destroyed and collapsed under dynamic load, e.g. earthquake. Therefore, it is necessary to study the seismic response analysis of underground structure in great detail for underground structure under dynamic loading, especially under the earthquake load. Hence, in view of the soft soil of Hangzhou, the 3D non-linear finite element software ADINA is used to study the seismic response of section tunnel of Hangzhou metro line 1, to summarize the earthquake response characteristics of the subway underground structure, and to provide the calculation results of metro tunnel's seismic response and the change rule of lining deformation and stress. The conclusions obtained can provide some reference values in the seismic design of metro tunnel in soft soil regions.

Keywords: Finite element - Metro tunnel - Seismic response - Soft soil - Viscoelastic boundary


The second development of ADINA

Wen, Z., Lin, C.

North China University of Water Conservancy and Electric Power, China

Applied Mechanics and Materials: Volume 170-173, 2012, Pages 3617-3620

Abstract: The second development of Duncan-Chang model suitable for geomaterials widely used home and abroad is made in ADINA with FORTRAN. The applicability of User-Defined Materials in ADINA is proved by engineering case. Based on the finite element method, ADINA system has been applied in many engineering field problems such as structure, temperature fluid and conducted scientific research. Compared with other finite element software, ADINA has more powerful function and more efficient solver. ADINA has been widely used in the Engineering because it is adapted to various engineering problems including the user defined materials and conducting the second development.

Keywords: Constitutive model - Nonlinearity - The second development


Analysis on rigidity of mitral valve leaflet (MVL) and backflow problems during cardiac cycle

Adib, M.A.H.M.1, Mohd Hasni, N.H.2, Osman, K.3, Maskon, O.4

1 Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Malaysia

2 Department of Surgery, Hospital Tengku Ampuan Afzan, Pahang, Malaysia

3 Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Technology Malaysia, Malaysia

4 Department of Cardiology, Hospital Kebangsaan Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia

Journal of Biomimetics, Biomaterials, and Tissue Engineering: Volume 13, Issue 1, 2 July 2012, Pages 75-79

Abstract: Problems that occur in the mitral valve are now worrying an increasing number of patients each day. In the mitral valve, regional variations in structure and material properties combine to affect the biomechanics of the entire valve. Previous studies have shown that the mitral valve leaflet tissue is highly extensible. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between the rigidity of mitral valves leaflet and backflow problems. Two stages of mitral valves analysis systolic and diastolic condition and also with and without ventricle were investigated. 2D models of the mitral valve leaflet (MVL) were created in ADINA-FSI for computational fluid dynamic analysis. The results show a linear relationship between rigidity of the mitral valves leaflet and volume of backflow. In conclusion, these computational techniques are very useful in the study of both mitral valve leaflet disease and failure of prostheses.

Keywords: Biomechanics - Diastolic - FSI - Mitral Valve - Systolic


Design, Manufacture, and Testing of the Easycuff™ Pressure Measuring Syringe

Slocum, A.H.1, Duffley, S.C.1, Gamazo, J.M.1, Watral, A.1, Spiegel, J.E. 2

1 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, United States

2 Department of Anesthesiology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA 02215, United States

Journal of Medical Devices, Transactions of the ASME: Volume 6, Issue 3, 20 August 2012, Article number 031008

Abstract: A pressure measuring syringe, known as the EasyCuff™, has been designed and manufactured to provide physicians with a tool to accurately measure the pressure inside the distal cuff of endotracheal tube tubes (ETTs). The syringe, identical in size to a standard 10 cc syringe, has four components: a seal, a plunger, a barrel, and a silicone-rubber bellows (the pressure measuring component). A finite-element model of the bellows was created using ADINA™; silicone rubber bellows were then produced and shown to correlate linearly with the model to within ±5% up to a load equivalent to an internal pressure of 200 cm H2O. 20 of these bellows were then assembled into EasyCuff™ syringes and tested to assess their accuracy and repeatability. The experimental setup used a currently-available manometer, which the EasyCuff™ is designed to replace, as a reference tool. The data show that the relationship between measured pressure and bellows deflection is linear, with a correlation factor of R2 = 0.99; additionally, environmental testing showed that the EasyCuff™ is unaffected by temperature cycling between -15 °F and +170 °F.

Keywords: Cuff pressure - Endotracheal intubation - Low pressure measurement


Design and in vitro assessment of an improved, low-resistance compliant thoracic artificial lung

Schewe, R.E.1, Khanafer, K.M.1, Arab, A.1, Mitchell, J.A.1, Skoog, D.J.1, Cook, K.E.1,2

1 Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, United States

2 Department of Surgery, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, United States

ASAIO Journal: Volume 58, Issue 6, November 2012, Pages 583-589

Abstract:  Current thoracic artificial lungs (TALs) have blood flow impedances greater than the natural lungs, which can result in abnormal pulmonary hemodynamics. This study investigated the impedance and gas transfer performance of a compliant TAL (cTAL). Fluid-structure interaction analysis was performed using ADINA (ADINA R&D Inc., Watertown, MA) to examine the effect of the inlet and outlet expansion angle, θ, on device impedance and blood flow patterns. Based on the results, the θ = 45° model was chosen for prototyping and in vitro testing. Glycerol was pumped through this cTAL at 2, 4, and 6 L/min at 80 and 100 beats/min, and the zeroth and first harmonic impedance moduli, Z0 and Z1, were calculated. Gas transfer testing was conducted at blood flow rates of 3, 5, and 7 L/min. Fluid-structure interaction results indicated that the 45° model had an ideal combination of low impedance and even blood flow patterns and was thus chosen for prototyping. In vitro, Z0 = 0.53 ± 0.06 mm Hg/(L/min) and Z1 = 0.86 ± 0.08 mm Hg/(L/min) at 4 L/min and 100 beats/min. Outlet PO2 and SO2 values were above 200 mm Hg and 99.5%, respectively, at each flow rate. Thus, the cTAL had lower impedance than hard shell TALs and excellent gas transfer.

Keywords: compliant thoracic artificial lung - fluid-structure interaction modeling - impedance


Study of a hydroelastic instability phenomenon: Flutter of racing yacht keels

Balze, R.1, Devaux, H.1, Jézéquel, L.2

1 HDS, École Centrale de Lyon, 45 rue de l'Elorn, 29200 Brest, France

2 Laboratoire de Tribologie et Dynamique des Systèmes, UMR-CNRS 5513, École Centrale de Lyon, 36 avenue Guy de Collongue, 69134 Écully cedex, France

ASME 2012 11th Biennial Conference on Engineering Systems Design and Analysis, ESDA 2012: Volume 4, 2012, Pages 391-401

Abstract:  In the field of aeroelasticity, flutter is a well known instability phenomenon. Flutter is a synchronized vibration which takes place in a flexible structure moving through a fluid medium. It occurs when two regular, rhythmic motions coincide in such a way that one feeds the other, drawing additional energy from surrounding flow. A classic case of wing flutter might combine wing bending with either wing twisting. This article explores the flutter phenomenon in water. An important difference from the flutter phenomenon in air is the fact that the flexible structure is evolving in heavy fluid; this implies in particular added mass effects and important fluid damping. Flutter appeared for the first time on racing yacht keels with composite fins, so in water, in 2004: • On the IMOCA 60 feet boat POUJOULAT-ARMORLUX of Bernard STAMM during the transatlantic race 'The Transat': he lost his keel and capsized. • On the IMOCA 60 feet boat SILL Rolland JOURDAIN: the keel and the boat were saved. Following these problems - particularly following the loss of the keel of Bernard STAMM sailboat, accident that could have dramatic consequences for the skipper - HDS company focused on the phenomenon. Flutter has occurred only for canting keels with composite fins on IMOCA 60 feet and Volvo 70 feet racing yacht. The main questions asked are "Why are composite keels susceptible to flutter, and is it possible to predict and prevent this behaviour?", then "Can a fair indication of the flutter critical speed of the keel be given at low cost?". This presentation will introduce the strategy of HDS faced to the problem and the analytical and numerical methods implemented to estimate the flutter critical speed. Our model is based on a truncated modal basis for the most energetic modes which are generally, for a bulb keel, the lateral bending predominant mode and the torsion predominant mode. One of our requirements was to make a simple model in order to integrate the calculation of the flutter critical speed in the first design loops of a composite or steel keel. This model has worked well for the two cases of flutter appeared on IMOCA sailboat keels. Besides, to verify the quality of the model and to complete our analysis of flutter phenomenon on racing yacht keels, a 3 dimensional multi-physics simulation has been developed using the software ADINA.

Keywords: Added mass effects - Analytical and numerical methods - Critical speed - Lateral bending - Multiphysics simulations - Rhythmic motion - Flutter (aerodynamics)


Computer simulation of induction bending process

Tropp, M., Handrik, M., Kopas, P., Sága, M.

Triple D Bending, Calgary, Alta., Canada

Pipeline and Gas Journal, Volume 239, Issue 11, November 2012

Abstract: The induction bending process for large-diameter pipes is very popular technology. An important problem in the bending process is prediction and improvement of the bending quality. A thermo-elastic-plastic mechanical model is used to simulate induction bending of large-diameter pipes. The bending experiments of the API 5L X65 induction bend pipes were performed to clarify the deformation behavior of the pipes. The large deformation behaviors of these experiments were simulated by finite element method, using ADINA software. The results of the introduced simulation approach via analysis of the residual stress, strain, and displacement distribution in pipe; analysis of the plastic stress, strain, and displacement distribution in pipe; analysis of the temperature distribution; and analysis of the pipe shape modification - ovality modification.


Finite element analysis of 15 × 104 m3 storage tanks with base isolation considering soil-structure interaction (SSI)

Liu, W.1, Sun, J. 2,3, Cui, L.2, Lu, Y.1

1 College of Civil and Architecture Engineering, Northeast Petroleum University, Daqing 163318, China
2 College of Civil and Architecture Engineering, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian 116600, China
3 School of Civil Engineering, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou 730050, China

Journal of Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Vibrations, Volume 32, Issue 6, 2012, Pages 153-158

Abstract: To consider the soil-structure interaction (SSI) effect on the base isolation of the 15 X 104 m3 vertical storage tank, this paper presents a method by using spring-damper system to simulate the foundation soil and the isolation layer, and shell element in the analysis of tank wall and bottom plate, while the fluid is simulated by potential fluid element, and the ADINA method is used to establish the 15 X 104 m3 tank finite element model. Newmark numerical integration methods for earthquake response analysis is applied under the seismic excitation,in which the El Centra ground motion is used with peak acceleration 0. 2g. The results show that in the case of considering the effect of SSI, the seismic responses of the non-isolation tank are decreased when there is amplification effect of the base isolation. In tank seismic design, soil-structure interaction in soft subsoil needs to be considered from the point of view of structure safety.

Keywords: ADINA - Base isolation - Soil-structure interaction - Storage tanks


Investigation of sheet-titanium forming with flexible tool-Experiment and simulation

Adamus, J., Lacki, P.

Czestochowa University of Technology, 69 Dabrowskiego Str, 42-201 Czestochowa, Poland

Archives of Metallurgy and Materials, Volume 57, Issue 4, 2012, Pages 1247-1252

Abstract: In the paper the results of investigation of sheet-titanium forming with flexible tool are presented. Titanium alloy sheets belong to a group of materials which are very hard to deform at ambient temperature. To improve sheet formability forming technology using a semi-flexible tool was implemented. Experiments were carried out on a specially designed for this purpose device. Due to the application of a rubber pad the stress state similar to triaxial compression was produced in the deformed material. Such a stress state made it possible to obtain higher material deformation without risk of fracture. The numerical simulations were used for analysing the flexible forming process. The ADINA System basing on the Finite Element Method (FEM) was applied.

Keywords: Flexible forming - Numerical simulation - Titanium sheet


The high-position seismic isolation of the whiplash effect of gravity dams

Zhang, H., Zhang, L.

College of Water Conservancy and Hydropower Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing, 210098, China

Earth and Space 2012 - Proceedings of the 13th ASCE Aerospace Division Conference and the 5th NASA/ASCE Workshop on Granular Materials in Space Exploration2012, Pages 1070-1079

Abstract: To avoid the through cracks in the upper part of the gravity dam near the geometrical change of the downstream slope because of the whiplash effect, the high-position seismic isolation is proposed to reduce the dynamic response of dam head in this paper. The characteristics and principles of the high-position seismic isolation are introduced. Koyna Dam is taken as a test case and the dam-reservoir-foundation-seismic isolation cushion interaction model is established. The nonlinear time history analysis of the dam, with or without the isolation, is performed using ADINA program to compare the effect of the seismic isolation. The research result provides a new idea with the aseismic design of gravity dam.

Keywords: Seismic isolation - Nonlinear time history analysis - Gravity dams - Whiplash effect


A road slope stability analysis

Yu, A1, Liu, J.2, Yang, D1, Cao, H.1, Yang, X.1

1 Civil Engineering and Architecture Institute, China Three Gorges University, Yichang, hubei, China
2 China Three Gorges University, Yichang, hubei, China

Advanced Materials Research,Volume 594-597, 2012, Pages 642-646

Abstract: In view of highway slope stability problems, this paper puts forward the method that numerical modeling of the road slope by the finite element analysis software -ADINA, with the Gravity Loading Proportion Methodto calculate the slope stability coefficient, deeply research the development process of deformation, breakage characteristics and stability of road high cutting slope. Comparison with the results obtained by the strength reduction FEM proposed by AcademicianYingrenZhengshows that the proposed method is more simple and reasonable to determine slope stability or not.

Keywords: Model - Plastic zone - Safety factor - Slope-stability


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