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The Theory used in ADINA is richly documented in the following books by K.J. Bathe and co-authors



To Enrich Life
(Sample pages here)

To Download — Second Edition of the Book "Finite Element Procedures" (6th printing)

You are welcome to download the second edition of the book, 6th printing, however, please note that the book is copyrighted and should only be used in the same manner as a purchased hard-copy of the book.

Improved versions will be made available here, from time to time, as the 7th printing, and so on.

"Finite Element Procedures", 2nd Edition (.pdf)

Solutions to exercises in the book "Finite Element Procedures", 2nd Edition, 2014 are given in this manual (.pdf)

The Chinese translation of the 2nd edition is also available: Vol. 1 Vol. 2

Following are more than 700 publications — that we know of — with reference to the use of ADINA. Since there are numerous papers published in renowned journals, we can only give here a selection. The pages give the Abstracts of some papers published since 1986 referring to ADINA. The most recent papers are listed first. All these papers may be searched using the box:

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IVUS-based Fluid-structure Interaction Models for Novel Plaque Vulnerability Indices: A Study in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease

Wang, L.1, Meahara, A.2, Yang, C.1,3, Zheng, J.4, Bach, R.5, Muccigrosso, D.4, Mintz, G.S.2, Tang, D.1,6

1 Mathematical Sciences Department, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Worcester, MA 01609, United States
2 Columbia University, Cardiovascular Research Foundation, NY 10022, United States
3 Network Technology Research Institue, China United Network Communications Co. Ltd, Beijing, 100048, China
4 Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63110, United States 3 Network Technology Research Institue, China United
5 Cardiovascular Division, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, United States
6 Southeast University, Nanjing, 210096, China

Procedia Engineering, Volume 126, 2015, Pages 436-440

Abstract: It is believed that mechanical stresses play an important role in atherosclerotic plaque rupture process and may be used for better plaque vulnerability assessment and rupture risk predictions. IVUS data were acquired from 14 patients (11 M, 3F, Mean age: 59, ) for constructing 3D computational models combining fluid-structure interaction (FSI), cyclic bending due to cardiac contraction and patient-specific pressure loading to quantify mechanical conditions in the human coronary. The computational models were solved by a finite element package ADINA to obtain plaque wall stress (PWS), strain (PWSn) and flow shear stress (FSS) and investigate correlation between the mechanical conditions and morphological characteristics. For all 617 IVUS slices yielded from the 14 patients, plaque morphological features lipid percentage and min cap thickness were calculated for each slice, and three types of plaque morphology related indices: lipid index, cap index and morphological index (MPVI) were introduced as quantitative measures of plaque vulnerability. PWS, PWSn and FSS values at critical sites were denoted as critical plaque wall stress (CPWS), critical plaque wall strain (CPWSn) and critical flow shear stress (CFSS) for each slice, and a stress index was proposed based on the value of the CPWS. The conventional Pearson's correlation is used to analyze the correlation between each of the mechanical conditions and each plaque morphological feature indices. Our results suggest there is significant correlation between the CPWS and min cap thickness, cap index with the correlation coefficient r=-0.6570, r=0.8016 respectively, while the correlation between CPWS and lipid percentage and the lipid index are weaker (r=0.2209, r=0.2304) even though they are significantly correlated. The correlation results between CPWS and morphological index (r=0.7725, p-value<0.0001) showed there is a strong positive relationship between the mechanical stress and morphological features. For all 617 slices, the stress index has a 66.77% agreement with morphological index. More patient follow-up data and large-scale studies are needed to continue our investigations.

Keywords: Coronary - fluid-structure interaction - IVUS - plaque morphological index - plaque progression - plaque rupture


Theoretical-experimental analysis of aluminum joints spot welded using rfssw technology

Lacki, P.A., Winowiecka, J.K., Derlatka, A.M.

Czestochowa University of Technology, Ul. J.H. Dabrowskiego 69, Czestochowa, 42-201, Poland

Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Computational Plasticity - Fundamentals and Applications, COMPLAS 2015: 2015, Pages 216-226

Abstract: Friction stir welding is one of the newest methods of material joining. It is constantly developed and Refill Friction Stir Spot Welding (RFSSW) is one of its varieties. RFSSW is a solid-state joining technology. During the process, heat is generated as a result of friction between the tool and the joined materials as well as the material plastic deformation. RFSSW uses a rotating tool consisting of probe, sleeve and clamping ring. RFSSW joints are produced in two ways. The difference between them is in the way the probe and sleeve plunge into the joined materials. In the first method the probe is plunged into the workpieces, but the sleeve is retracted. At the same time, the welded material is transferred to the sleeve location. Upon reaching the desired plunge depth, the tool is kept in that position. After that, the rotating probe is retracted from the welded joint and the material is pressed into the welded point by the sleeve. In the second method, the sleeve is plunged into the workpieces, but the probe is retracted. RFSSW is an attractive process for manufacturers who need to reduce the weight of their assemblies by joining light-weight metals. To date the process is mainly used in the automotive and aerospace industries (the panel structures, load-bearing structures etc.). In the paper numerical and experimental studies of tensile test of the uniform and welded samples are presented. The specimens are made of 7075 aluminum. The welded samples are made using RFSSW technology. Material properties, which have been determined experimentally for the uniform specimens, were assumed in the numerical calculations. The numerical calculations were performed with the ADINA System based on Finite Element Methods. For the uniform samples the experimental and numerical calculation results of elongation and changes in thickness were compared. For the welded samples, which varied in location of RFSSW spots, the tensile forces were determined experimentally, while the reduced stress and plastic strain distributions were determined numerically. The numerical studies of RFSSW spot welded specimens indicated that the initiation of failure occurred in the edge zone of the welds.

Keywords: Aluminum alloy 7075 - Friction stir welding - Refill friction stir spot welding


Uplift bearing mechanism of nodular pile

Chen, Y., Wu, W.

Zhejiang University of Water Resources and Electric Power, Hangzhou, 310018, China

Electronic Journal of Geotechnical Engineering: Volume 20, Issue 20, 2015, Pages 11647-11654

Abstract: Finite element analysis software ADINA were used to study the mechanism of the nodular pile under uplift load. In the numerical model, finite element analysis software ADINA was applied to establish the three dimensional calculation models of nodular pile, the feasibility of the three dimensional calculation model is assessed by measurements in a field test. At last, the influencing factors of the uplift capacity of nodular piles are studied by this numerical model. It is shown that the uplift capacity of nodular pile is sensitive to the nodular width and spacing.

Keywords: Load-transfer mechanism - Nodular pile - Three-dimensional model - Uplift capacity


Seismic performance study for modified welding stirrups composite coupling beams with ADINA

Li, Y., Chen, H., Ge, N.

North China University of Science and Technology, Earthquake Engineering Research Center of Hebei Province, Tangshan, 063009, China

World Information on Earthquake Engineering: Volume 31, Issue 3, 1 September 2015, Pages 279-286

Abstract: With finite element software ADINA, numerical models were presented for improved welded stirrup composite coupling beams, in order to study the influence of steel plate thickness upon its seismic performance. Results show that those three kinds of thickness exhibited little difference upon the failure process and area of concrete parts. While it seems that steel plates subjected very little internal damage or failure, which indicates the further load bearing and deflection capacity. The plump hysteric also indicates the satisfied energy dissipation capacity, and the low axial strain of stir up in shear wall could ensure its confining action to longitudinal rebar.

Keywords: Dissipation capacity - Finite element analysis - Steel plate coupling beam - Steel ratio


Analysis of tensile test of titanium EBW sheet

Adamus, J.1, Motyka, M.2

1 Faculty of Civil Engineering, Czestochowa University of Technology, ul. Dabrowskiego 69, Czestochowa, 42-201, Poland
2 Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Aeronautics, Department of Materials Science, Rzeszow University of Technology, ul. W. Pola 2, Rzeszow, 35-959, Poland

Key Engineering Materials: Volume 639, 2015, Pages 339-346

Abstract: The continuous pursuit of vehicle weight reduction forces the industry to look for alternative materials to steel. Light alloys such as aluminium or titanium are materials that provide a decrease in weight using conventional technologies. Additional weight reduction results from using tailor-welded blanks (TWB). While the joining and forming steel or even aluminium TWBs is quite well known and described in the technical literature, joining and forming titanium TWBs still poses a significant problem. In the paper, experimental tests carried out with welded samples manufactured from commercially pure titanium Gr 2 and titanium alloy Gr 5 sheets are presented. The samples were joined by electron beam welding. Mechanical testing and optical microscopy were used to characterise the welds and the base metal of the samples. The samples were subjected to uniaxial tension up to final failure. The 3-D Digital Image Correlation system ARAMIS was used for monitoring the whole deformation process. This makes it possible for real-time observation of sample deformation. The test results and the numerical analysis of the tensile tests are compared. The numerical simulations were carried out with the ADINA System based on the Finite Element Method (FEM). The mechanical analysis leads to calculation of the strain state after sample deformation in uniaxial tension (mechanical model).

Keywords: Numerical simulation - Tensile strength - Titanium Cylindrical tank


Determination of the strain-free configuration of multispan cable

Zhang, C.1, Guo, Q.a,2, Zhang, X.1

1 State Key Lab for Mechanical Structural Strength and Vibration, Xi'An Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shannxi, 710049, China
2 Shanghai Electric Power Generation Equipment Co., Ltd., Shanghai Turbine Plant, Shanghai, 200240, China

Shock and Vibration: Volume 2015, 2015, Article number 890474

Abstract: For building a reasonable finite element geometric model, a method is proposed to determine the strain-free configuration of the multispan cable. The geometric conditions (the end conditions and the unstretched length conditions) as constraints for the configuration of multispan cable are given. Additionally, asymptotic static equilibrium conditions are given for determining the asymptotic shape of the multispan cable. By solving these constraint equations, a set of parameters are determined and then the strain-free configuration of multispan cable is determined. The method reported in this paper provides a technique for building reasonable FEA geometric model of multispan cables. Finally, a three-span cable is taken as example to illustrate the effectiveness of the method, and the computed results are validated via the software ADINA.


The time-varying characteristics of overhead electric transmission lines considering the induced-ice-shedding effect

Ji, K.1, Rui, X.1, Li, L.1, Zhou, C.1, Liu, C.1, McClure, G.2

1 School of Energy Power, Mechanical Engineering, North China Electric Power University, Beijing, 102206, China
2 Department of Civil Engineering and Applied Mechanics, McGill University, Montreal, QC H3A 0C3, Canada

Shock and Vibration: Volume 2015, 2015, Article number 635230

Abstract: More ice deposits accreted on conductors or ground wires may be shed off when an overhead electric transmission line is responding to shocks initiated by natural ice shedding. Ice shedding causes the global mass, stiffness, and damping of the tower-line system to vary with time, and the successive shedding effect beyond a trigger event has not been taken into account in previous studies due to the lack of an adequate ice detachment model. In this paper, the ice shedding effect induced by initial shocks was considered in finite element (FE) analysis. An ice detachment criterion, in the way of user-defined element rupture subroutine, was implemented into the main commercial nonlinear FE program ADINA, making it possible to consider the induced-ice-shedding effect numerically. The incremental FE form of the system's governing equations of motion is presented where the variations in the mass and stiffness matrices of the system are taken into consideration. Taking a transmission line section following natural ice shedding as a case study, the results indicate that neglecting successive ice shedding underestimates the adverse influence of natural ice shedding. The proposed method can help to improve the design and evaluation of transmission lines in cold regions and to ensure their mechanical security.


Test method, simulation and micro-process dynamic model for noise analysis of auto hydraulic shock absorber

Shu, H., Luo, S., Wang, L.

SHU Hongyu, Graduate of Chongqing University, China

SAE Technical Papers: Volume 2015-June, 15 June 2015

Abstract: In order to measure the noise of auto shock absorbers, a test bench used to detect piston-rod vibration responses of shock absorbers and measuring analyzer named SANTS-I were developed. The vibration response data was detected by bench tests, which shows that there are high-frequency violent peaks on the sine curve of piston-rod oscillating with relative low frequency. In order to explain the interior work dynamic mechanism of shock absorbers, a schematic Micro-process Dynamic Model with 10 steps particularly divided extension and compression stroke in more detail, and dynamic differential equations for each step were presented and discussed. Furthermore, numerical simulation for the inner impacts interaction between piston and damping fluid of hydraulic shock absorber was realized by ADINA software, by the establishment of a gas-liquid two-phase finite element model. It was understood by the Micro-process Dynamic Model and numerical simulation that the cause of the abnormal noise is violent vibrations excited by inner clearance impact interaction between piston and damping oil fluid. And adherence action between valve plate and its seat, friction between piston and cylinder barrel and vaporization of damping oil fluid would intensify the impacts around the piston top dead center (TDC) and bottom dead center (BDC). Therefore, high-frequency vibration of the piston is excited and transferred to body structure of automobile, and the abnormal noise is generated.


Structural mechanical and thermal hydraulic aspects on the behaviour of crack like leaks in piping

Sievers, J.1, Heckmann, K.1, Pallas-Moner, G.2, Lerchl, G.2

1 Gesellschaft für Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Schwertnergasse 1, Cologne, D-50667, Germany
2 Gesellschaft für Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Forschungszentrum, Garching, D-85748, Germany

Progress in Nuclear Energy: Volume 84, 1 September 2015, Article number 2087, Pages 18-23

Abstract: The evaluation of fluid flow rates through crack-like leaks in pressurized components of NPPs plays an important role for leak-before-break considerations. When using available simplified methods for the estimation of critical discharge flow rates, a suitable friction factor has to be chosen. Guidelines are given in the German code KTA 3206 based on investigations of leak rate experiments summarized in this paper. The frictional pressure loss in different leak flow approaches has to be chosen consistently in order to obtain comparable results with different models. Thermal hydraulic and structural mechanical analyses were performed for a postulated leak in the pressurizer surge line (SL) of a PWR Konvoi type under design basis accident conditions. The leak was postulated in form of a through-wall crack in circumferential direction. The size of the leak was calculated in the framework of Finite Element calculations with the code ADINA using an analysis model of a cooling loop of Konvoi type. With the calculated leak size, an ATHLET calculation was conducted, also examining the influence of the consideration of a variable leak size depending on the system pressure and mechanical loads. In the investigated case, the implication of the decreasing leak size, especially on the course of the remaining system pressure, cannot be neglected. The reduction of the leak area amounts in the transient examined to ca. 25% after about 1 h due to both the system pressure and temperature decrease and leads therefore also to an approximately 23% smaller leak rate. These results are dependent on the assumed position of the leak. Concerning the determination of the leak rates as critical flow-through rates with simplified methods good agreement has been achieved although the approaches differ considerably in parts. Relevant influence factors are the inflow losses in the crack channel, the consideration of the hydraulic diameter in connection with the leak area and the assumptions on the flow resistance coefficient due to the roughness of the crack surfaces.

Keywords: Accident conditions - Leak area - Leak rate - Pressure water reactor - Structural mechanics - Thermal hydraulics


A case study on the seismic behavior of tanks considering soil-structure-fluid interaction

Kotrasová, K.1, Grajciar, I.2, Kormaníková, E.1

1 Technical University of Košice, Slovakia
2 Ricardo Prague, S.R.O., Czech Republic

Journal of Vibrational Engineering and Technologies: Volume 3, Issue 3, 1 July 2015, Pages 315-330

Abstract: Ground-supported tanks are used to store a variety of liquids. The fluid develops hydrodynamic pressure on walls and bottom of tank during an earthquake. This paper provides theoretical background for specification of impulsive and convective actions of fluid in liquid storage rectangular container by using analytical methods. Numerical model of tank seismic response - the infinite shipping channel was obtained by using of Finite Element Method (FEM), Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE), Fluid Structure Interactions (FSI) formulation in software ADINA. The results of the analytical methods and the numerical solution were compared for partially water filled channel grounded on hard soil or sub-soil 30 MNm-3. It was considered the horizontal ground motion of the earthquake in Loma Prieta.

Keywords: Earthquake - Fluid - Fluid-structure interaction - Rectangular tank


Tensile stress-strain relaxation as a failure precursor for FRP-strengthened RC beams

Pešić, N.1, Pilakoutas, K.2

1 University of Warwick, School of Engineering, Coventry, CV4 7AL, United Kingdom
2 University of Sheffield, Dept. of Civil and Structural Engineering, Mappin St., Sheffield, S1 3JD, United Kingdom

Composite Structures , EURODYN, Volume 125, July 01, 2015, Pages 530-541

Abstract: The paper presents findings from an experimental investigation and finite element (FE) analysis of RC beams strengthened in flexure and shear with externally bonded carbon FRP composites. The work initially focuses on the brittle plate-end concrete cover failures of RC beams strengthened in flexure only. The strain measurements reveal that the 'plate-end debonding' is preceded by tensile relaxation in the anchorage zone of the FRP plate as a result of tension softening within the concrete cover layer. Experimental work then dealt with the role of the side-bonded 'U'-shaped FRP strips in preventing the plate-end concrete cover failure and in increasing shear capacity of flexurally strengthened concrete beams. For the two strengthening configurations, with and without FRP strips, FE models developed with ADINA and ABAQUS were used to predict brittle failure through concrete. The non-linear FE analysis based on the smeared-crack constitutive model for concrete in tension produced the load-history of principal tensile stresses in concrete at the plate-end. This load-history was then used to define a design criterion for predicting the safe load levels against the plate-end concrete failure for FRP-plated RC beams.

Keywords: Brittle fracture - Concrete - Finite element analysis - FRP strengthening


Uterine peristalsis-induced stresses within the uterine wall may sprout adenomyosis

Shaked, S.1, Jaffa, A.J.2, Grisaru, D.3,4, Elad, D.1

1 Department of Biomedical Engineering, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, 69978, Israel
2 Ultrasound Unit in Obstetrics and Gynecology, Lis Maternity Hospital, Tel-Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv, 64239, Israel
3 Oncogynecology Unit, Lis Maternity Hospital, Tel-Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv, 64239, Israel
4 Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, 69978, Israel

Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology, Volume 14, Issue 3, 15 June 2015, Pages 437-444

Abstract: Adenomyosis is a disease in which ectopic endometrial glands and stromal cells appear in the uterine myometrium. This pathology is common among women of reproductive age, and in addition to chronic pelvic pain and heavy periods it may also cause infertility. The ‘tissue injury and repair’ mechanism in response to increased intrauterine pressures was proposed as the etiology for migration of fragments of basal endometrium into the myometrial wall. In order to investigate this mechanism, a conceptual two-dimensional model of the uterine wall subjected to intrauterine pressures was implemented using ADINA commercial software. The stress field within the uterine wall was examined for a variety of intrauterine sinusoidal pressure waves with varying frequencies. The results revealed that: (1) as the wavelength of the subjected pressure wave decreased, high concentration of stresses developed near the inner uterine cavity; (2) as the pressure wave frequency increased, high gradients of the stresses were obtained; (3) at menstrual phase, the highest stresses obtained at the endometrial–myometrial interface. Therefore, increased uterine activity results in high stresses which may lead to tissue lesions and detachment of endometrial cells.

Keywords: Adenomyosis - Computational model - Endometrial–myometrial interface - Endometriosis - Intrauterine pressure


A simplified mechanical model with fluid-structure interaction for rectangular tank sloshing under horizontal excitation

Zou, C.1,2, Wang, D.1,2

1 State Key Laboratory of Ocean Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, 200240, China
2 Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Ship and Deep-Sea Exploration, Shanghai, China

Advances in Mechanical Engineering, Volume 7, Issue 5, 1 May 2015, Pages 1-16

Abstract: Based on the spring-mass model, a novel mechanical model of sloshing with fluid-structure interaction under a horizontal excitation is proposed, and the coupled dynamic equation of sloshing system is established. Considering the flexibility of bulkhead, the effects of certain factors, such as bulkhead bending stiffness and filling ratios, on the mode of coupled sloshing system are investigated. It is found that these factors have significant influence on the mode. By comparing the present results with the results of ADINA based on the linear potential flow theory and published literatures, the proposed coupled sloshing model is verified. The results show that the simplified rigid mass, m0, dominates the contributions to bending moment near the bottom of a bulkhead and the spring-mass, m1, k1, to bending moment near the liquid-free surface of a bulkhead. Furthermore, the computational cost is greatly reduced by using the proposed mechanical model with fluid-structure interaction for a rectangular tank sloshing.

Keywords: Coupling effect - Fluid-structure interaction - Sloshing - Spring-mass model - Water wave mode


Dynamic simulations in support of installation of light rail tracks on the Homer H. Hadley Memorial floating bridge

Ketchum, C.1, Cooper, T.2, Foan, A.3, Joy, R.1, Sederat, H.4, Sleavin, J.5

1 Transportation Technology Center, Inc., United States
2 Parsons Brinckerhoff, Inc., United States
3 Andy Foan Ltd, United Kingdom
4 SC Solutions, United States
5 Sound Transit, United States

Stephenson Conference Research for Railways 2015, Volume 2015-April, 2015, Pages 245-263

Abstract: A unique application of NUCARS®1 vehicle dynamics software and ADINA finite element analysis software was used to predict the performance of a transit vehicle over a new track structure being developed to support light rail traffic on Interstate 90's Homer H. Hadley Memorial Floating Bridge east of Seattle, Washington, USA. Led by Parsons Brinckerhoff, Inc. (PB), the designing team of Transportation Technology Center, Inc. (TTCI), SC Solutions (SCS), and Andy Foan, Ltd. provided services to Sound Transit (ST) in support of its East Link Extension project, which will take light rail vehicles across the Lake Washington 1-90 floating bridge from Seattle to Mercer Island, Washington, continuing to Bellevue and Redmond, Washington. A novel piece of special trackwork, named a "track bridge", is required for light rail to operate across the joints between the fixed approach spans and onto the floating bridge. The track bridge must accommodate multidimensional movement at the transition zone while providing a smooth running surface for the vehicle. To achieve this, the PB team developed a track-bridge design employing a pair of innovative rail joints called the Curved Element Supported Rail (CESuRa). TTCI used NUCARS and ADINA simulation results from SCS to predict vehicle dynamic response and wheel-rail forces over the CESuRa. Rail deflections from ADINA were fed into the NUCARS model, and the resulting wheel-rail forces were fed back to ADINA. Results from both models were compared, and the models were modified until an acceptable level of correlation was reached. The models were validated by suspension characterization testing of a light rail vehicle in the ST shops and a full-scale test at the Federal Railroad Administration's Transportation Technology Center in Pueblo, Colorado.


Numerical investigation of Refill Friction Stir Spot Welding joints

Derlatka, A., Lacki, P.

Czestochowa University of Technology, Dabrowskiego 69, Czestochowa, 42-202, Poland

Computer Methods in Materials Science, Volume 15, Issue 1, 2015, Pages 144-149

Abstract: The paper presents an analysis of tensile tests for welded specimens made of 6061-T6 aluminium alloy. Three kinds of lap joins were made by Refill Friction Spot Stir Welding (RFSSW). The each specimen has one joint, but they were varied in the position of the sheets. In the first, the angle between sheets axes was 0°, to determine the tensile capacity of the joint. In the second and third, the angle between sheets axes was 20°, and -20°. That position of sheets allow determine the maximum load and displacement of stretched and twisted structure. The numerical calculations were performed using the ADINA System based on the Finite Element Method (FEM). The sheets and joints were modelled with 3D-solid elements. The experimental investigations were carried out using a testing machine and a non-contact and material independent measuring system providing, for loaded test objects, accurate 3D displacements and surface strain values. The stress, strain distribution and displacements were analysed. The numerical and experimental results were compared. The structures were assessed in respect of strength and the possibility of applying in the aircraft industry.

Keywords: Aluminium 6061-T6 - Finite element method - Refill Friction Spot Stir Welding (RFSSW)


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