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The Theory used in ADINA is richly documented in the following books by K.J. Bathe and co-authors



To Enrich Life
(Sample pages here)

To Download — Second Edition of the Book "Finite Element Procedures" (6th printing)

You are welcome to download the second edition of the book, 6th printing, however, please note that the book is copyrighted and should only be used in the same manner as a purchased hard-copy of the book.

Improved versions will be made available here, from time to time, as the 7th printing, and so on.

"Finite Element Procedures", 2nd Edition (.pdf)

Solutions to exercises in the book "Finite Element Procedures", 2nd Edition, 2014 are given in this manual (.pdf)

The Chinese translation of the 2nd edition is also available: Vol. 1 Vol. 2

Following are more than 700 publications — that we know of — with reference to the use of ADINA. Since there are numerous papers published in renowned journals, we can only give here a selection. The pages give the Abstracts of some papers published since 1986 referring to ADINA. The most recent papers are listed first. All these papers may be searched using the box:

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Analysis of heat flow in composite structures used in window installation

Adamus, J., Pomada, M.

Czestochowa University of Technology, 69 Dabrowskiego St., Czestochowa, 42-201, Poland

Composite Structures, Volume 202, 15 October 2018, Pages 127-135

Abstract: In the paper, the influence of sill beam material and its construction on heat flow through an external wall with a window was analysed. Such beams are used as the support elements in window installation in the thermal insulation layer. The beams were made of fibre-reinforced polyurethane composites. Some of them were reinforced with metal profiles. Taking into consideration the material properties such as specific strength, heat transfer coefficient and corrosion resistance, in addition to typical steel materials, reinforcements made of aluminium and titanium alloys were also analysed. Numerical calculations were performed with the ADINA System, which is based on the finite element method (FEM). The process of heat exchange between the interior with the constant temperature of 20 °C and the external environment with the temperature of −20 °C was simulated. Temperature distribution in the wall as well as the course of the 0° isotherm and the possibility of condensation in the wall were analysed. Moreover, corrosion and the economic aspects connected with the application of metal profiles used as reinforcements were taken into consideration. The numerical model for the sill beam without reinforcement was verified in experiments.

Keywords: Heat transfer - Metal reinforcement - Numerical analysis - Warm installation - Window installation


Numerical modal analysis for vibration-damping properties of ductile cast

Kováčiková, P., Vavro, J., Dubec, A.

Department of Numerical Methods and Computational Modeling, Faculty of Industrial Technologies, Alexander Dubcek University of Trencin, I. Krasku 491/30, Púchov, 020 01, Slovakia

MATEC Web of Conferences: Volume 157, 14 March 2018, Article number 02019

Abstract: This paper deals with standard test method for the measurement of vibration-damping properties of materials, ductile cast iron-graphitic cast iron with the spherical shape of graphite (ductile cast iron). Investigation is focused on its mechanical properties, chemical composition and microstructure, which are necessary as input parameters for computational modeling and numerical analysis. The vibration or oscillating of experimental samples are closely connected with such parameters as natural shapes (eigenshapes) and natural frequencies (eigenfrequencies). Preparation of a geometric model of a homogeneous beam sample and numerical analysis was performed by finite element method in the ADINA software environment. This paper can be used for further development and growth from the aspect of application of computational tools in the area of damping and eigenfrequency properties for construction materials.

Keywords: ADINA - Cast iron - Eigenfrequencies - Eigenshapes - Finite elements methods - Graphite


Comparison of steel-concrete composite column and steel column

Lacki, P., Derlatka, A., Kasza, P.

Czestochowa University of Technology, Dąbrowskiego 69, Częstochowa, 42-201, Poland

Composite Structures: Volume 202, 15 October 2018, Pages 82-88

Abstract: The aim of the work was numerical analyses of a steel-concrete composite column and a steel column. An internal column 3.60 m in length was considered. The column was on the second storey of a six-storey building designed for retail and services. The column was subjected to compression and uniaxial bending. The existing steel column was made from a welded H-profile. In the first stage of the work, the composite column was designed as an alternative to the existing steel column using the analytical method. A steel reinforced concrete column with a steel H-profile was selected. The second part of the work consisted in modelling the steel and composite columns. The geometries, loads and boundary conditions used in simulations of the columns were the same as in the analytical calculations. Numerical analysis was carried out using the ADINA System based on the finite element method. In the steel column, the stresses and displacements were considered. In the composite column, the stresses in the steel and concrete elements, the stresses distributions in the reinforcement bars and displacements of the whole column were evaluated.

Keywords: FEM - Steel - Steel reinforced concrete column - Steel-concrete composite column


Numerical study of the blockage length effect on the transient wave in pipe flows

Zhao, M.1, Ghidaoui, M.S.2, Louati, M.3, Duan, H.-F.4

1 Department of Engineering Mechanics, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, China
2 Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong
3 Post-doctoral Fellow, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong
4 Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong

Journal of Hydraulic Research: Volume 56, Issue 2, 4 March 2018, Pages 245-255

Abstract: A pipeline with an extended blockage is modelled as a system of three pipes in series. A computational fluid dynamics approach using the ADINA software is adapted to solve the slightly compressible turbulent flow problem with complex geometry. Two-dimensional axisymmetric computational results are validated by several examples. In practice, the water hammer wave generated by rapid valve closure usually exhibits wave front smearing. The numerical analysis shows that for a blockage length larger than the wave front thickness, the magnitude of the incident wave may be significantly suppressed as a result of the interaction between the blockage and the wave front. By reflecting negative pressure waves toward the incident wave before its maximum pressure arrives at the blockage, the maximum transient pressure may be considerably reduced. Consequently, the blockage behaves as a discrete blockage. However, if the blockage length is large compared with the thickness of the wave front, the incident wave conserves its initial amplitude, and the blockage behaves as an extended blockage. Therefore, the occurrences of discrete and extended blockages depend on the thickness of the wave front and thus on the rapidity of the manoeuvre that generates the transient.

Keywords: Blockage - computational fluid dynamics - numerical diffusion - transient - water pipeline - wave


Numerical simulation of one-way concrete slabs reinforced with glass fiber reinforced polymer bars under service temperatures

Lardjane, S.1, Bellakehal, H.1, Zaidi, A.1, Masmoudi, R.2

1 Structures Rehabilitation and Materials Laboratory (SREML), University of Laghouat, Algeria
2 Department of Civil Engineering, University of Sherbrooke, Canada

Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering: Volume 45, Issue 10, 2018, Pages 878-888

Abstract: The thermal incompatibility between fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) bars and concrete may cause splitting cracks within the concrete and, eventually, the deterioration of the bond between the FRP bar and the concrete. This paper presents a numerical study using ADINA finite elements software to investigate the thermal behavior of actual one-way concrete slabs reinforced with glass FRP (GFRP) bars varying the ratio of concrete cover thickness to FRP bar diameter (c/db) from 1.3 to 2.8. Slabs are submitted to temperature variations varied from −50 to 60°C. The main results prove that first radial cracks occur in concrete, at the FRP bar – concrete interface, at thermal loads (∆Tcr) varied between 15°C and 30°C. While, the circumferential cracks appear within concrete, at FRP bar – concrete interface, at ∆Tcr varied between −15°C and −35°C depending of the ratio c/db (1.3 to 2.8) and the tensile strength of concrete fct (1.9 to 2.9 MPa). These numerical thermal loading values are relatively in good agreement with those predicted from the analytical model. The numerical model shows that there is no failure of the concrete cover for low temperatures for slabs having c/db = 1.3 to 2.8 and f ct = 1.9 to 2.9 MPa. Nevertheless, for high temperatures, the splitting failure of concrete cover is produced at thermal loads ∆Tsp' varied from 30°C to 59°C. While, for concrete situated between GFRP bars, the splitting failure occurred at thermal loads ∆T sp ' equal to 46°C. Thermal stresses and strains, and also cracking thermal loads predicted from the numerical model are compared with those obtained from analytical models and experimental tests.

Keywords: Concrete slabs - Cracking thermal loads - Glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) bars - Numerical model - Thermal stresses and strains


Seismic response of base-isolated CRLSS considering nonlinear elasticity of concrete

Cheng, X., Ma, L., Zhang, A., Liu, B.

School of Civil Engineering, Lanzhou University of Technology, China

Journal of Asian Architecture and Building Engineering: Volume 17, Issue 3, 2018, Pages 533-540

Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to study the seismic response of a base-isolated, concrete rectangular liquid-storage structure (CRLSS) under small-amplitude sloshing. In this study, the three-dimensional FEM of the base isolated CRLSS is established by using ADINA. The concrete material is assumed to be nonlinear and elastic, and the criterion for the small amplitude sloshing is defined to determine the seismic response of a base-isolated CRLSS under different conditions. The results show that when small-amplitude sloshing occurs and the nonlinear elasticity of the concrete material is considered, the displacement of wallboard, the height of liquid sloshing and the equivalent stress are increased with the increase in the earthquake intensity when comparing the same liquid height and different intensities of a bidirectional earthquake. The liquid height is found to affect the seismic response of the base-isolated CRLSS. The lower the liquid height is, the larger the equivalent stress is, and the greater the displacement of the wallboard and the amplitude of the liquid sloshing are.

Keywords: Concrete - Liquid-solid interaction - Nonlinear elasticity - Rectangular liquid-storage structure - Seismic response


Tuned mass damper system of high-rise intake towers optimized by improved harmony search algorithm

Li, D.1,2,3, Chen, J.2, Zhou, Y.3

1 Faculty of Civil and Architecture Engineering, East China Institute of Technology, Nanchang, 330013, China
2 School of Civil Engineering, Fujian University of Technology, Fuzhou, 350108, China
3School of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Anhui University of Science and Technology, Huainan, 232001, China

Advances in Materials Science and Engineering: Volume 2018, 2018, Article number 7458696

Abstract: Artificial frozen soil is a kind of typical creep material, and the frozen clay under the unloading stress paths of high-confining pressure conforms to the improved the Zienkiewicz-Pande parabola-type yield criterion, and the Mohr-Coulomb yield function can describe the shear yield surface of artificial frozen clay under low-confining pressure. Based on the results of triaxial creep and shear tests for artificial frozen soil, the viscoplastic damage variable and evolution rule of artificial frozen clay were obtained by using the theory of viscoelastic-plastic mechanics and damage mechanics. An improved Zienkiewicz-Pande parabola-type yield criterion was used instead of a linear Newton body to obtain a coupled constitutive model of viscoelastic-plastic damage in the frozen soil under the unloading stress paths and to derive the coupling flexibility matrix for viscoelastic and viscoplastic damage. A finite element program of artificial frozen soil considering creep damage was written in the Visual Fortran 6.6A environment and embedded into the nonlinear finite element software ADINA as a user subroutine. The results of numerical simulation and laboratory testing were identical, with a maximum error of no more than 4.8%. This work shows that it is reasonable to describe the creep constitutive model of frozen soil with the viscoelastic-plastic-coupled constitutive model.


Measuring of vibration-damping properties of cast iron

Kováčiková, P., Vavro, J., Jr., Dubec, A.

Faculty of Industrial Technologies in Púchov, Alexander Dubček University of Trenčín, I. Krasku 491/30, Púchov, 020 01, Slovakia

Manufacturing Technology: Volume 18, Issue 1, 2018, Pages 57-59

Abstract: Nowadays, ever increasing demands are being made on equipment and machine structures. This fact negatively affects their lifespan, reliability and security. Internal damping is caused by material malfunctions in the microstructure, thermoelastic effects, movement of dislocations or the effects of swirling currents. This paper deals with microstructure, chemical composition and mechanical properties of ductile iron. These data are required as input parameters for computational modeling and numerical analysis. The numerical part is focused on the modal analysis of the homogeneous beam sample by finite element method in the ADINA software environment.

Keywords: Cast iron - Finite element methods - Mechanical properties - Microstructure


Experimental and Numerical Studies on Sloshing Dynamics of PCS Water Tank of Nuclear Island Building

Li, X.1,2, Song, C.1, Zhou, G.3, Wei, C.3, Lu, M.4

1 College of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing, 100124, China
2 Institute of Geophysics, China Earthquake Administration, Beijing, 100081, China
3 Nuclear and Radiation Safety Center, Ministry of Environmental Protection of the People's Republic of China, Beijing, 100082, China
4 Institute of Crustal Dynamics, China Earthquake Administration, Beijing, 100085, China

Science and Technology of Nuclear Installations: Volume 2018, 2018, Article number 5094810

Abstract: Water tank is one important component of passive containment cooling system (PCS) of nuclear island building. The sloshing frequency of water is much less than structure frequency and large-amplitude sloshing occurs easily when subjected to seismic loadings. Therefore, the sloshing dynamics and fluid-structure interaction (FSI) effect of water tank should be considered when the dynamic response of nuclear island building is analyzed. A 1/16 scaled model was designed and the shaking table test was done, in which the hydrodynamic pressure time histories and attenuation data of wave height were recorded. Then the sloshing frequencies and 1st sloshing damping ratio were recognized. Moreover, modal analysis and time history analysis of numerical model were done by ADINA software. By comparing the sloshing frequencies and hydrodynamic pressures, it is proved that the test method is reasonable and the formulation of potential-based fluid elements (PBFE) can be used to simulate FSI effect of nuclear island building.


Dynamical analysis of steel point connectors used for fixation of glass façades

Major, I., Major, M., Respondek, Z.

Czestochowa university of technology, Faculty of civil engineering, 3 Akademicka str., Częstochowa, 42-200, Poland

Archives of Metallurgy and Materials: Volume 63, Issue 1, 2018, Pages 491-496

Abstract: This study presents the numerical comparative analysis of the point connector and its modification used for fixation of glass façades in terms of the obtained values of stresses and displacements. Since the most popular components of glass façades are square, rectangular or triangular, it was adopted that the load to the connectors is transferred from a rectangular façade component. Furthermore, the dynamic effect of wind gusts on façades was also assumed, with both wind pressure and wind suction. Adoption of the rectangular component of the glass façade leads to an unfavourable load distribution observed in the location of the connection, with the connector additionally twisted with respect to its own symmetry axis. ADINA software, based entirely on the finite elements method, was used for numerical analysis. The examinations allowed for evaluation of how the modifications introduced into the referential model reduce values of the obtained stresses and displacements.

Keywords: ADINA - Dynamics - Glass façades - Point connector - Wind load


A posteriori error estimation for incompressible viscous fluid with a new boundary condition

El Akkad, A.1, Elkhalfi, A.2

1 Département de mathématiques, Centre Régional des Métiers d'Education et de Formation de Fès (CRMEF Fès), Rue de Koweit, Ville: Fès, Morocco
2 Laboratoire Génie Mécanique, Faculté des Sciences et Techniques, Route d'Imouzzer - Fès, Morocco

Boletim da Sociedade Paranaense de Matematica, Volume 36, Issue 3, 2018, Pages 53-74

Abstract: This paper describes numerical solutions of incompressible Navier-Stokes equations with a new boundary condition. To solve this problem, we use the discretization by mixed finite element method. We use a vector extrapolation method for computing numerical solutions of the steady-state Navier-Stokes equations. In addition, two types of a posteriori error indicator are introduced and are shown to give global error estimates that are equivalent to the true error. A numerical experiment on the driven cavity flow is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the vector extrapolation method. We compare the result with the solution from commercial code like ADINA system as well as with values from other simulations.

Keywords: A posteriori error estimation - ADINA system - Finite Element Method - Navier-Stokes Equations - Vector extrapolation


Analysis of stress field in a single anisotropic diamond/square shaped inclusion using the volume integral equation method and the numerical equivalent inclusion method

Lee, J.1, Nozaki, H.2, Lee, H.3

1 Department of Mechanical and Design Engineering, Hongik University, Sejong, South Korea
2 College of Education, Ibaraki University, Mito, Japan
3 College of Liberal Studies, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea

Composite Interfaces, Volume 25, Issue 3, 4 March 2018, Pages 221-249

Abstract: A volume integral equation method (VIEM) is used to study elastostatic problems in an unbounded elastic solid containing a single diamond/square shaped inclusion subject to uniform tensile stress at infinity. The inclusion is assumed to be a long parallel diamond/square cylinder composed of isotropic or anisotropic elastic materials and perfectly bonded to the isotropic matrix. The solid is assumed to be under plane strain on the plane normal to the cylinder. A detailed analysis of the stress field at the interface between the isotropic matrix and the single isotropic/orthotropic diamond/square shaped inclusion is carried out. The effects of a single isotropic/orthotropic diamond/square shaped inclusion on the stress field at the interface between the matrix and the inclusion are investigated in detail. The accuracy of the volume integral equation method for the interfacial stress field is validated and compared by the numerical equivalent inclusion method (NEIM) and the finite element method (FEM) using ADINA. Through detailed analysis of plane elastostatic problems using the parallel volume integral equation method (PVIEM) in an unbounded isotropic matrix with multiple isotropic diamond shaped inclusions under uniform remote tensile loading, it is demonstrated that the volume integral equation method can also be applied to solve general two- and three-dimensional elastostatic problems involving multiple isotropic/anisotropic inclusions whose shape and number are arbitrary.

Keywords: anisotropic inclusion - diamond/square shaped inclusion - finite element method - numerical equivalent inclusion method - Volume integral equation method


Layer-wise numerical model for laminated glass plates with viscoelastic interlayer

Zemanová, A., Zeman, J., Janda, T., Šejnoha, M.

Department of Mechanics, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Thákurova 7, Prague 6, 166 29, Czech Republic

Structural Engineering and Mechanics, Volume 65, Issue 4, 25 February 2018, Pages 369-380

Abstract: In this paper, a multi-layered finite element model for laminated glass plates is introduced. A layer-wise theory is applied to the analysis of laminated glass due to the combination of stiff and soft layers; the independent layers are connected via Lagrange multipliers. The von Kármán large deflection plate theory and the constant Poisson ratio for constitutive equations are assumed to capture the possible effects of geometric nonlinearity and the time/temperature-dependent response of the plastic foil. The linear viscoelastic behavior of a polymer foil is included by the generalized Maxwell model. The proposed layer-wise model was implemented into the MATLAB code and verified against detailed three-dimensional models in ADINA solver using different hexahedral finite elements. The effects of temperature, load duration, and creep/relaxation are demonstrated by examples.

Keywords: Finite element method - Generalized Maxwell model - Geometric nonlinearityLagrange multipliers - Laminated glass plate - Layer-wise plate model - Newton method - Time/temperature-dependent behavior - Von Kármán assumptions - Williams-Landel-Ferry equation


Finite element modelling of reinforced road pavements with geogrids

Neves, J.1, Gonçalves, M.2

1 CERIS, CESUR, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal
2 Infraestruturas de Portugal, Lisboa, Portugal

Numerical methods in geotechnical engineering IX, Volume 2, 2018, Pages 1371-1376

Abstract: Finite Element Modelling (FEM) is one of the most common methods used to solve complex problems in civil engineering. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the use of FEM to analyse the reinforcing influence of geogrids in road pavements. Using ADINA software, a parametric study was carried out, taking into consideration diverse pavement structures, climatic and traffic conditions, and geogrid reinforcement solutions. The paper describes the two-dimensional axisymmetric finite element model developed for unreinforced and reinforced pavement analysis. In general, the research confirmed the adequacy of ADINA for the analysis of reinforced road pavements that use geogrids. Results from the numerical analysis allowed for the following main conclusions: 1) fatigue resistance was improved when the geogrid was applied on top of unbound granular layers; 2) rutting decreased when the geogrid was applied on top of the subgrade soil.


A Fluid-Structure Interaction case study on a square sail in a wind tunnel

Ghelardi, S.1, Freda, A.2, Rizzo, C.M.1, Villa, D.1

1 DITEN - Polo Navale, Università degli Studi di Genova, via Montallegro 1, Genova, I-16145, Italy
2 DICCA - Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile, Chimica e Ambientale, via Montallegro 1, Genova, I-16145, Italy

Ocean Engineering, Volume 163, 1 September 2018, Pages 136-147

Abstract: A Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI) conventional case study is proposed to be used as a benchmark for numerical analyses. Experimental tests were carried out to provide targets for comparisons; in particular, the study regarded the estimate of the deformed configuration (“flying shape” in the sailing field) of a square sail under a uniform flow regime in a wind tunnel facility. Several tests have been carried out at different wind velocities. The sailcloth has been characterized by means of mono-axial tensile tests obtaining Young's and shear moduli as well as Poisson's coefficients, which have then been used as input parameters for numerical analyses. Test results are considered a benchmark target deserving challenging aspects for numerical simulations in spite of the selected simple test geometry and conditions. Numerical tests have been carried out by means of a commercial software (ADINA™). Analyses used a strongly coupled partitioned approach between a Finite Volume Method (FVM) based on Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) equations, whereas a Finite Element Method (FEM) has been adopted for the structural field. A comparison has been eventually carried out assessing different numerical models. A good overall agreement between experimental and numerical results has been obtained by suitably setting FSI simulation algorithms.

Keywords: Benchmark - CFD - FEA - Fluid structure interaction (FSI) - Sail - Wind tunnel


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