ADINA Publications

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The Theory used in ADINA is richly documented in the following books by K.J. Bathe and co-authors

Finite Element Procedures

Finite Element Procedures in Engineering Analysis

Numerical Methods in Finite Element Analysis

The Mechanics of Solids and Structures — Hierarchical ...

The Finite Element Analysis of Shells — Fundamentals

Inelastic Analysis of Solids and Structures

To Enrich Life
(Sample pages here)


To Download — Second Edition of the Book "Finite Element Procedures" (4th printing)

You are welcome to download the second edition of the book, 4th printing, however, please note that the book is copyrighted and should only be used in the same manner as a purchased hard-copy of the book.

Improved versions will be made available here, from time to time, as the 5th printing, and so on.

"Finite Element Procedures", 2nd Edition (.pdf)

Solutions to exercises in the book "Finite Element Procedures", 2nd Edition, 2014 are given in this manual (.pdf)

The Chinese translation of the 2nd edition is also available: Vol. 1 Vol. 2

Following are more than 700 publications — that we know of — with reference to the use of ADINA. The pages give the Abstracts of some papers published since 1986 referring to ADINA. The most recent papers are listed first. All these papers may be searched using the box:

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Three-dimensional finite element analysis of the ankle-foot orthosis

Chu, T.-M. (Univ of Akron); Reddy, N.P.; Padovan, J. Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering, v 19, n 5, 1991, p 640-641


Conference: 1991 Annual Fall Meeting of the Biomedical Engineering Society, Oct 12-14 1991, Charlottesville, VA, USA

Abstract: Excess rotation at the ankle joint constituting the drop foot problem presents a major obstacle in the rehabilitation of stroke patients. Ankle-Foot-Orthoses (AFO) are often prescribed to alleviate the problem. The purpose of the present paper is to study the stress distribution in the AFO. A 3-D Finite Element Model (FEM) of the AFO was developed, using ADINA, with 323 elements and 596 nodes. 3-D brick elements were used to simulate the polypropylene orthosis, soft tissue, and the bones. The principal ligaments were simulated by truss elements. The top portion of the orthosis was assumed to be fixed. The lower end of the orthosis extended below the foot to provide the support. The soft tissue surrounding the tibia was allowed to slip over the tibia. The foot was attached to the leg with soft tissue and ligaments. A concentrated nodal force on the calcaneous simulated the Achillis tendon. Simulation results, for the case of linear material properties, revealed that the peak stress in the orthosis occurred near the heel and in the middle of the orthosis depending on the loading conditions. The present results are consistent with previous 2-D FEM of the orthosis (Reddy et al., 1985; Lam et al., 1987).

Keywords:  Biomechanics -- Joints  -  Mathematical Techniques - Finite Element Method  -  Orthotics  -  Biological Materials - Tissue  -  Biological Materials - Bone

Secondary  Keywords:  Ankle-Foot Orthosis  -  3-D Finite Element Model (FEM)  -  Tibia  -  Abstract Form Only


Note on the analysis of the Mauvoisin concrete arch dam subjected to earthquake input

Kniffka, K.-V. (Electrowatt Engineering Services Ltd) Source: Computers and Structures, v 40, n 2, Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis and ADINA, 1991, p 503-509


Conference: Proceedings of the 8th ADINA Conference, Jul 17-19 1991, Cambridge, MA, USA

Abstract: Finite element analysis plays an important part in today's structural analysis of dams. This paper presents a study of a concrete arch dam located in Mauvoisin, Switzerland. The dam was built in 1960 and its height will be increased by 13.5 m from 237 to 250.5 m with a crown-length of approximately 560 m. The capacity of the power plant is 350 MW. The dynamic analysis for a soil-structure-fluid interaction of the dam subject to seismic input verifies the compliance of the structure to the Swiss Standard SIA 160 code. In accordance with this code, an artificial time-history is derived from the given response-spectrum. Moreover, the structure is checked for adequacy against the maximum credible earthquake (MCE) equivalent to the safe shutdown earthquake (SSE) for nuclear power plants. Modelling a compressible and inviscid fluid, results are given for the case of using displacement-based fluid elements with special dampers at the artificial boundary. An investigation using potential based fluid elements with infinite elements will in the future be made for comparison.

Keywords:  Dams, Arch -- Earthquake Resistance  -  Mathematical Techniques--Finite Element Method  -  Structural Analysis--Computer Aided Analysis  -  Dams, Concrete--Computer Aided Analysis  -  Standards--Switzerland  -  Hydroelectric Power Plants--Switzerland

Secondary Keywords:  Soil Structure Fluid Interaction  -  Maximum Credible Earthquake  -  Safe Shutdown Earthquake  -  Displacement based Fluid Elements


Use of ADINA-F for large model fluid-flow analyses

Lozupone, D.F. (IBM ECSEC); Piccolo, F. Source: Computers and Structures, v 40, n 2, Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis and ADINA, 1991, p 511-520


Conference: Proceedings of the 8th ADINA Conference, Jul 17-19 1991, Cambridge, MA, USA

Abstract: This paper presents some performance improvements introduced in ADINA-F for the IBM 3090 vector-multiprocessor, to run large model fluid-flow analyses. These improvements have been achieved by means of a new skyline solver, the vectorization and parallelization of the assembly and the optimization of the I/O through the usage of data sets allocated on virtual storage instead of disks. The skyline solver is based on the blocked approach proposed by the level 3 BLAS (Basic Linear Algebra Subprograms). This solver achieves high performance due to vectorization, parallelization and optimized access of data stored in high speed memories. The maximum speed-up measured in this phase is about 25. The assembly has been vectorized and parallelized with a local speed-up of about 11. The optimization of the I/O appears a crucial point in order to achieve a very satisfactory overall reduction in the computational time. The use of the virtual input/output facility leads to a local speed-up of up to 18. The exploitation of some of the features of the IBM 3090 allows one to very efficiently run complex industrial problems. The time scale passes from several hours to a few minutes, the global job speed-up being up to 19.

Keywords:  Flow of Fluids -- Computer Aided Analysis  -  Computer Programming  -  Mathematical Models  -  Mathematical Techniques--Finite Element Method  -  Computer Systems, Digital--Multiprocessing

Secondary  Keywords:  Software Package ADINA-F  -  Skyline Solvers  -  Vector Multiprocessors  -  Large Model Fluid Flow Analyses  -  Vectorization  -  Parallelization


Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis and ADINA

Bathe, K.J., ed. Source: Computers and Structures, v 40, n 2, Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis and ADINA, 1991, p 201-520


Conference: Proceedings of the 8th ADINA Conference, Jul 17-19 1991, Cambridge, MA, USA

Publisher: Publ by Pergamon Press Inc

Abstract: The Proceedings of the Conference contains 30 papers dealing with nonlinear finite element analysis and the application of ADINA (Automatic Dynamic Incremental Nonlinear Analysis) computer program. Subjects considered include: recent developments in finite element analysis (FEA); treatment of inequality constraints arising from contact conditions in FEA; FEA of hyperbolic cooling tower shells; numerical analysis of dolos drop tests; thermomechanical response of titanium aluminide/silicon carbide composite; hydrodynamic pressure in dam-reservoir systems; creep analysis of maturing concrete; airfield concrete pavements; calculation of shafts in waste deposits; fatigue crack growth simulation; concrete dam thermal stresses; naval panel shock load modeling; improving traffic safety by profiled highway markings; hierarchic modeling of plates; design of deployable structures; conjugate gradient and GMRES methods in ADINA; systems architectures for FEA; analysis of fixation of total hip femoral components using ADINA; steel box girer component behavior analysis; finite element model updating by measured information; J-integral elastic-plastic fracture analysis; concrete arch dam seismic analysis;use of ADANA-F for large model fluid flow analyses. All papers are indexed and abstracted separately.

Keywords:  Structural Analysis -- Computer Aided Analysis  -  Computer Programming  -  Mathematical Techniques--Finite Element Method  -  Fracture Mechanics  -  Prosthetics--Hip Prostheses  -  Highway Signs, Signals and Markings

Secondary  Keywords:  Concrete Dams  -  Dolos Drop Tests  -  Hyperbolic Cooling Tower Shells  -  Fluid Flow Modeling  -  Software Package ADINA  -  EIREV


Life time prediction for ceramic gas turbine components

Sturmer, G. (Universitat Karlsruhe); Schulz, A.; Wittig, S. Source: American Society of Mechanical Engineers (Paper), 1991, 7p

ISSN: 0402-1215 CODEN: ASMSA4

Conference: International Gas Turbine and Aeroengine Congress and Exposition, Jun 3-6 1991, Orlando, FL, USA

Publisher: Publ by ASME

Abstract: At the Institute for Thermal Turbomachinery, University of Karlsruhe (ITS), theoretical and experimental investigations on ceramic gas turbine components are performed. For the reliability analysis by finite element calculations the computer code CERITS has been developed. This code is used to determine the fast fracture reliability of ceramic components subjected to polyaxial stress states with reference to volumetric flaws and was presented at the 1990 IGTI Gas Turbine Conference. CERITS-L now includes subcritical crack growth. With the new code CERITS-L, failure probabilities of ceramic components can be calculated under given load situations versus time. (17 refs.)

Keywords:  Gas Turbines -- Components  -  Ceramic Materials - Applications  -  Mathematical Techniques - Finite Element Method  -  Machine Components - Failure  -  Computer Software - Applications

Secondary  Keywords:  Ceramic Gas Turbine Components  -  Turbine Component Life Time Prediction  -  Software Package CETRIS-L  -  Software Package Adina-T


Analysis of 3-D elastic contact stresses for the cylinder head of an internal combustion engine. An improved mixed finite element method

Li, Ming-Zhang (Huazhong Univ of Science and Technology); Jun, Yu.; Huang, Yu-Ying; Zha, Jian-Zhong Source: American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Design Engineering Division (Publication) DE, v 32, n pt 2, Advances in Design Automation, 1991, p 123-130

CODEN: AMEDEH ISBN-10: 0-7918-0748-7

Conference: 17th Design Automation Conference presented at the 1991 ASME Design Technical Conferences, Sep 22-25 1991, Miami, FL, USA Sponsor: ASME, Design Engineering Div

Publisher: Publ by ASME

Abstract: In this paper, an improved mixed finite element method (FEM) for analysing elastic contact stresses is presented. Since the corresponding softness matrix symmetrized, the main advantage is that not only is the computation efficiency is improved, but also the data storage is reduced in comparison with the usual mixed FEM. A set of computation formulas of FEM for 3-D elastic contact problems with friction is established and realized on digit computers. A numerical example compared with the results obtained by ADINA shows that the present approach is very efficient and reliable. (7 refs.)

Keywords:  Internal Combustion Engines -- Cylinders  -  Mathematical Techniques - Finite Element Method

Secondary  Keywords:  3-D Elastic Contact Problems  -  Improved Mixed Finite Element Method


Effect of thermal residual stresses on the asymmetric constitutive behavior of metal-matrix composites

Shi, Ning (Univ of Maryland at Coll Park); Arsenault, Richard J. Source: Journal of Composites Technology & Research, v 13, n 4, Winter, 1991, p 211-226


Abstract: An analytical investigation of the difference in the constitutive behavior of silicon carbide-aluminum (SiC-Al) composites under uniaxial compressive and tensile loading was carried out, and the associated changes of the residual stresses were studied. It is suggested that the observed asymmetric response of the constitutive behavior is primarily due to the existence of residual stresses in the composite. These residual stresses are initially introduced because of the differences in the coefficients of thermal expansion (ΔCTE) during the cooling process and subsequently changed after the external load is applied. A two-dimensional (2-D) finite element analysis of a hexagonal array of SiC whiskers in an Al matrix was performed, the result of which testifies to the appropriateness of the proposed explanation. It is concluded that the 2-D finite element analysis is an economical way of adequately reproducing the most prominent features of the material's constitutive behavior. Based upon the theory of mechanics of composite material, simplified analytical models were developed which can be used to investigate the influences of the whisker-matrix interface shear load transfer and the volume mismatch on the residual stresses. (39 refs.)

Keywords:  Composite Materials -- Fiber Reinforced  -  Aluminum And Alloys--Fiber Reinforcement  -  Silicon Carbide  -  Stresses  -  Mathematical Techniques--Finite Element Method

Secondary  Keywords:  Silicon Carbide-Aluminum Composite  -  Thermal Residual Stress  -  Deformation Induced Residual Stress  -  Volume Mismatch  -  Interface Load Transfer  -  Software Package ADINA


Determination of fatigue crack closure effect by compliance technique and numerical method

Cheng, Yuren (Northern Jiaotong Univ); Shi, Xiaofeng; Peng, Xiang; Hou, Binglin Source: Jinshu Xuebao/Acta Metallurgica Sinica, v 26, n 4, Aug 18, 1991, p A287-A292 Language: Chinese

ISSN: 0412-1961 CODEN: CHSPA4

Abstract: The open load of notch crack of the axle steel was determined by the method of crack-tip strain gauge in compliance technique, and on the basis of the cyclic stress-strain plot, calculated by the analysis of the stress-strain field ahead of crack-tip with the aid of ADINA non-linear finite element program as well. Both results are identical. A proposal of sensitive point, on which a strain gauge was already attached, was made as the key to determine open load. The measured and calculated results certified that the sensitive point is the position of the best linearity and greater strain ahead of crack-tip. (5 refs.)

Keywords:  Stress corrosion cracking  -  Fatigue of materials  -  Numerical methods  -  Mathematical models  -  Crack propagation

Secondary  Keywords:  Crack closure effect  -  Compliance method


Engineering geological investigations for planning and construction of an underground repository for low-level radioactive wastes

Langer, M. (Federal Inst for Geosciences and Natural Resources) Source: Engineering Geology, v 30, n 1, Mar, 1991, p 115-126


Conference: Proceedings of the 28th International Geological Congress on Applied Geosciences for Low-Level Radioactive and Chemical Wastes, Jul 9-19 1989, Washington, DC, USA

Abstract: The site analysis has three essential tasks: (a) assessment of the load capacity of the host rock, so that deposition strategies can be determined for the site; (b) determination of the safe dimensions of the mine (e.g. stability of the caverns and safety of the operations); (c) evaluation of the barriers and the long-term safety analysis for the authorization procedure. The Konrad iron ore mine, near Salzgitter - Lebenstedt in the Federal Republic of Germany, has been selected as a potential repository for radioactive waste that does not generate heat. Advantages of the Konrad site are the mine stratum thickness of several hundred metres and the low permeability of the geological formations. Subsidence measurements were started even before ore extraction began, providing current investigations with data collected over the 20 yr extraction period. The measurements show that the mine has been stable since it was opened and the overlying strata, consisting of marlstone formations, have undergone deformations without exhibiting any failure. Stability evaluation of the planned repository was carried out using finite element analysis with the ADINA computer program. It is demonstrated that despite the existence of local plasticization zones no particular stability problems occur. The mining experience gained shows the feasibility of the planned repository with regard to the excavation of the disposal rooms. (4 refs.)

Keywords:  Radioactive Wastes -- Geological Repositories  -  Geology - Engineering  -  Tunnels and Tunneling  -  Iron Mines and Mining - Federal Republic of Germany  -  Rock Mechanics - Computer Aided Analysis  -  Subsidence

Secondary  Keywords:  Low Level Wastes  -  Software Package ADINA


Buckling of single layer composite cylinders subjected to lateral pressure

Mikulinsky, M.A. (Israel Military Industries) Source: AIAA Journal, v 28, n 7, Jul, 1990, p 1333-1335


Abstract: The purpose of the present effort has been to solve the buckling problem for single-layer, composite, circular cylinders having simply supported edges, when subjected to an external uniform lateral pressure. The composite is treated as an orthotropic material whose principal material directions are coincident with the axial and hoop directions. Two buckling types, bending and shear, with different types of behavior were found. The analytic results were verified by numerical calculations. (3 refs.)

Keywords:  Composite Structures  -  Cylinders - Buckling  -  Structural Analysis  -  Mathematical Techniques - Finite Element Method

Secondary  Keywords:  Software Package ADINA


Analysis of stress distributions in an ice floe

Frederking, R.M.W. (Natl Research Council of Canada); Evgin, E. Source: Proceedings of the International Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering Symposium, v 4, 1990, p 83-87


Conference: Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering 1990. Volume IV: Arctic/Polar Technology, Feb 18-23 1990, Houston, TX, USA Sponsor: ASME, New York, NY, USA; Norwegian Soc of Chartered Engineers, Norw; Dansk Ingeniorforening, Den; American Concrete Inst, USA; Energy Rubber Group, USA; et al

Publisher: Publ by American Soc of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)

Abstract: Stress distributions in an ice floe idealized as a circular disk are calculated for various boundary loading conditions. A general purpose finite element program, ADINA, is used in the analysis. The effect of ice thickness variations on the stress distributions is also examined. The numerical results obtained in this study, complemented with some field data, provided a basis for making recommendations on the locations of stress sensors, and the interpretation of the stress measurements in relation to pack ice driving forces. (5 refs.)

Keywords:  Ice -- Stresses  -  Mathematical Techniques - Finite Element Method  -  Stresses - Measurements

Secondary  Keywords:  Stress Distributions  -  Ice Floe  -  Boundary Loading Conditions


Three-dimensional finite element analysis of temperatures and stresses in a single-pass butt-welded pipe

Karlsson, R.I. (Chalmers Univ of Technology); Josefson, B.L. Source: Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology, Transactions of the ASME, v 112, n 1, Feb, 1990, p 76-84


Abstract: Temperatures, stresses, and deformations in a single-pass butt-welded pipe are studied with a full three-dimensional finite element model. The model covers the whole circumference and the complete welding sequence; i.e., no assumption of axisymmetry is made. The pipe studied has an outer diameter of 114.3 mm and a wall thickness of 8.8 mm. The material is carbon-manganese steel. The MIG-welding simulated results in a very high cooling rate. Low-temperature solid-state phase transformations, therefore, become significant and of importance to the residual stress field. The material model in the FE-code used (ADINA) is extended for that purpose. Notable calculated results are the residual compressive hoop stresses in the weld and the residual circumferential stress variations, especially in the beginning and end regions of the weld. (29 refs.)

Keywords:  Pipe -- Welding  -  Welding--Butt  -  Mathematical Techniques--Finite Element Method  -  Stresses--Analysis  -  Thermal Effects  -  Materials Testing--Residual Stresses

Secondary  Keywords:  Three-Dimensional Finite Element Analysis  -  Thermal Model  -  Single-Pass Butt-Welded Pipe  -  Residual Compressive Hoop Stresses  -  Axisymmetric Fe-Model  -  Low-Temperature Solid-State Phase Transformation


Investigation of the thermomechanical response of a titanium-aluminide/silicon-carbide composite using a unified state variable model and the finite element method

Sherwood, J.A. (Univ of New Hampshire); Boyle, M.J. Source: American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Applied Mechanics Division, AMD, v 111, Microcracking-Induced Damage in Composites, 1990, p 151-161


Conference: Winter Annual Meeting of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Nov 25-30 1990, Dallas, TX, USA Sponsor: ASME, Applied Mechanics Div; ASME, Materials Div

Publisher: Publ by ASME

Abstract: Analysis of the stress distribution in a fiber-reinforced titanium aluminide composite resulting from thermomechanical loads has been initiated. The study was conducted using a fully three-dimensional finite element model of a unit cell of the composite. The results from the three-dimensional study indicated that an axisymmetric model of the composite system is sufficient. The model was generated by the ADINAIN preprocessor and evaluated using the ADINA finite element code. The thermomechanical response has been studied for a typical temperature-dependent bilinear elastoplastic material model and a temperature dependent viscoplastic model which utilizes a unified state variable theory. (9 refs.)

Keywords:  Composite Materials -- Fiber Reinforced  -  Stresses--Analysis  -  Mathematical Techniques--Finite Element Method  -  Aluminum and Alloys  -  Computers--Applications  -  Viscoplasticity

Secondary  Keywords:  Thermomechanical Response  -  Classical Viscoplasticity  -  Titanium-Aluminide/Silicon-Carbide Composite  -  Constitutive Models  -  Unified State Variable Model


Three dimensional application of the smeared crack approach

Malvar, L.J. (Univ of California); Fourney, M.E. Source: Engineering Fracture Mechanics, v 35, n 1-3, 1990, p 251-260


Conference: International Conference on Fracture and Damage of Concrete and Rock and Special Seminar on Large Concrete Dam Structures, Jun 4-6 1988, Vienna, Austria

Publisher: Publ by Pergamon Press Inc

Abstract: A smeared crack approach to fracture of concrete is implemented in the finite element program ADINA. Non-linear concrete elements with tensile cracking are modified to include tensile strain softening. Upon cracking of an element at an integration point, the stiffness perpendicular to the crack is reduced to zero and the tensile stress across it is a function of the crack opening. Equilibrium iterations are implemented to redistribute stress. Two and three dimensional models of a single edge notched beam in three point bending are analysed and compared to experimental result. In the three dimensional model the crack front appears slightly curved, not as deep near the free edges as in the center.

Design of ceramic gas turbine components

Stuermer, G. (Univ Karlsruhe); Fundus, M.; Schulz, A.; Wittig, S. Source: American Society of Mechanical Engineers (Paper), 1990, GT48 8p

ISSN: 0402-1215 CODEN: ASMSA4

Conference: International Gas Turbine and Aeroengine Congress and Exposition, Jun 11-14 1990, Brussels, Belg

Publisher: Publ by ASME

Abstract: At the Institute for Thermal Turbomachinery, University of Karlsruhe (ITS), detailed theoretical and experimental studies concerning ceramic gas turbine components are performed. For the analysis of the reliability of ceramic components by finite element calculations the numerical code CERITS has been developed which follows a strategy similar to that suggested by Gyekenyesi. CERITS determines the failiure probability of ceramic components with reference to volumetric flaws. Different fracture criteria can be considered. CERITS is coupled to the finite element code ADINA which facilitates the prediction of the required temperature and stress distributions. The procedure is demonstrated utilizing gas turbine combustor components. (13 refs.)

Keywords:  Gas Turbines -- Components  -  Ceramic Materials - Applications  -  Mathematical Techniques - Finite Element Method  -  Computer Software

Secondary  Keywords:  Ceramic Gas Turbine Components  -  Software Package CERITS  -  Software Package ADINA  -  Weibull Scale Parameter


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