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• To Download — Second Edition of the Book "Finite Element Procedures" (6th printing)
You are welcome to download the second edition of the book, 6th printing, however, please note that the book is copyrighted and should only be used in the same manner as a purchased hardcopy of the book.
Improved versions will be made available here, from time to time, as the 7th printing, and so on.
"Finite Element Procedures", 2nd Edition (.pdf)
Solutions to exercises in the book "Finite Element Procedures", 2nd Edition, 2014 are given in this manual (.pdf)
The Chinese translation of the 2nd edition is also available: Vol. 1 Vol. 2
Following are more than 700 publications — that we know of — with reference to the use of ADINA. Since there are numerous papers published in renowned journals, we can only give here a selection. The pages give the Abstracts of some papers published since 1986 referring to ADINA. The most recent papers are listed first. All these papers may be searched using the box:

Thermal stress analysis of a concrete dam
Ishikawa, M. (Tokyu Construction Co Ltd) Source: Computers and Structures, v 40, n 2, Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis and ADINA, 1991, p 347352
ISSN: 00457949 CODEN: CMSTCJ
Conference: Proceedings of the 8th ADINA Conference, Jul 1719 1991, Cambridge, MA, USA
Abstract: An example will be shown that ADINA was applied to thermal stress analysis of a concrete dam. The characteristics of thermal stress analysis of a mass concrete structures that the finite elements should be added according to the casting schedule of concrete and the elastic modulus of concrete should be increased with time. The user's routine was developed to calculate thermal stress in concrete structures. As an example, temperature and stress distributions were simulated in a concrete dam which was constructed by our company.
Keywords: Dams, Concrete  Stresses  Concrete Construction  Computer Programming  StressesThermal  Structural Analysis  Elasticity
Secondary Keywords: Thermal Stresses  Software Package ADINA  Mass Concrete Structures  Temperature Distribution  Stress Distribution  Concrete Dams
Global and local modelling of naval panels subjected to shock loads
Houlston, R. (Defence Research Establishment Suffield); Slater, J.E. Source: Computers and Structures, v 40, n 2, Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis and ADINA, 1991, p 353364
ISSN: 00457949 CODEN: CMSTCJ
Conference: Proceedings of the 8th ADINA Conference, Jul 1719 1991, Cambridge, MA, USA
Abstract: For efficiency, a finite element model should give sufficiently accurate results with the minimum number of degreesoffreedom. It is thus important to assess the solution accuracy and sensitivity with respect to the loading and structural details. This paper is specifically concerned with the accuracy of displacement predictions from finite element models of plates and stiffened panels subjected to airblast loads. In particular, the effects of boundary condition and loading details on the displacement response are assessed.
Keywords: Structural Panels  Shock Testing  PlatesShock Testing  Mathematical TechniquesFinite Element Method  Mathematical Models  Computer Simulation  Structural AnalysisDynamic Response
Secondary Keywords: Finite Element Models  Displacement Predictions  Stiffened Panels  Naval Panels  Air Blast Loads
Jintegral evaluation from ADINA shell element results
Grebner, H. (Gesellschaft fuer Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) m.b.H.); Hoefler, A. Source: Computers and Structures, v 40, n 2, Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis and ADINA, 1991, p 365374
ISSN: 00457949 CODEN: CMSTCJ
Conference: Proceedings of the 8th ADINA Conference, Jul 1719 1991, Cambridge, MA, USA
Abstract: A postprocessor program for ADINA shell elements has been developed to evaluate Jintegral values as crack driving forces for ductile fracture mechanical problems with wall penetrating cracks of regular simple shape. The performance and accuracy of this procedure have been proved on several pipe component test cases with pressure, bending and thermal loads. The method seems to be well suited for the assessment of such cracks against stable crack initiation. As a rule the results with shells are calculated with less overall expense than equivalent threedimensional continuum element models would require.
Keywords: Domes and Shells  Computer Aided Analysis  Pipe Fittings  Computer Programming  StressesAnalysis  Mathematical TechniquesFinite Element Method  Fracture Mechanics
Secondary Keywords: JIntegral Evaluation  ADINA Shell Elements  Postprocessor Programs  Software Package ADINA  Cracks  Ductile Fracture
A ThreeDimensional NonLinear Finite Element Study Of The Effect Of CementProsthesis Debonding In Cemented Femoral Total Hip Components
T.P. Harrigan^{1} And W.H. Harris^{2}
^{1} Orthopaedic Biomechanics Lab., Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School,
Bostbn, MA 02114, U.S.A.
^{2} Hip and Implant Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, U.S.A.
J. Biomechanics, 24(2):10471058, 1991
Abstract: A threedimensional nonlinear finite element analysis of a cemented femoral component in which the component was partially debonded from the cement mantle was used to assess the effects of debonding on stresses in the cement. Three cases of partial cementmetal debonding were modelled with debonding of the proximal portion of the implant down to a horizontal plane which was 35, 62.5, or 82.5 mm below the prosthesis collar. Each situation was studied under loads simulating both gait and stair climbing. Also, complete debonding between the implant and the surrounding cement mantle was modeled for loads simulating pit. Under stair climbing loads with partial cementmetal debonding, hoop stresses of 1318 MPa were observed in the cement at the cementmetal interface at the proximal posteromedial corner of the implant. Similarly, in stair climbing, the maximum principal stresses in the cement were also adjacent to the proximal posteromedial region of the implant. These stresses were compressive and increased from 15 MPa with fully bonded interfaces to 48 MPa with debonding down to 82.5 mm below the prosthesis collar. Under gait loads, complete debonding caused high compressive stresses up to 34.9 MPa in the cement distal to the prosthesis tip.
Sensitivity of plate response calculations to blast load definition
Santiago, J.M. (U.S. Army Ballistic Research Lab); Bhattacharya, S. Source: Computers and Structures, v 40, n 2, Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis and ADINA, 1991, p 375392
ISSN: 00457949 CODEN: CMSTCJ
Conference: Proceedings of the 8th ADINA Conference, Jul 1719 1991, Cambridge, MA, USA
Abstract: The ADINA program has been used with three progressively more accurate loading functions to model the dynamic response of a plate. The calculations simulated the response of a 19 mm thick aluminum plate, clamped over a circular opening 914 mm in diameter, subjected to the blast from an explosive charge suspended 645 mm over its center. The loading functions were based on prior hydrocode calculations of the detonation flow using successively refined computational grids. The influence of clamped edge conditions on the response was bracketed by allowing no sliding and frictionless sliding. Calculations were performed using a linear analysis, a material nonlinear analysis with kinematic hardening plasticity, and a combined material and geometric nonlinear analysis. The deflection histories obtained with the three methods of analysis using the three progressively refined loading functions for the two bracketing boundary conditions were compared. The response was found to be sensitive principally to the total impulse delivered to the plate, though the influence of loading details was detected. Despite a significant amount of plasticity, the deflections were predominantly influenced by the strong coupling between the membrane and transverse deformations, resulting in the response being noticeably affected by boundary modeling and indicating a need to use the geometric nonlinear method of analysis.
Keywords: Plates  Shock Testing  Computer Simulation  Computer Programming  Structural AnalysisDynamic Response  Explosions  Plasticity
Secondary Keywords: Software Package ADINA  Blast Loads  Aluminum Plates  Nonlinear Analysis  Deflection  Membranes
Improving the traffic safety on Bavarian highway through profiled marking with use of ADINA
Steinauer, B. (Autobahndirektion Suedbayern); Tao, D. Source: Computers and Structures, v 40, n 2, Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis and ADINA, 1991, p 393399
ISSN: 00457949 CODEN: CMSTCJ
Conference: Proceedings of the 8th ADINA Conference, Jul 1719 1991, Cambridge, MA, USA
Abstract: To improve the traffic safety a profiled marking system is used on Bavarian highway. With the help of program ADINA the magnification factor and the comfort index of the vehicle as well as the optimal gaps and thicknesses of the profiles are studied. The experimental measurement is also demonstrated.
Keywords: Highway Signs, Signals and Markings  Bavaria, Federal Republic of Germany  Accident Prevention  Highway Systems  Computer programming  Mathematical Models  Motor TrucksAccident Prevention
Secondary Keywords: Traffic Safety  Profiled Markings  Bavarian Highways  Software Package ADINA
Element nonlinearity effects on local and global stability
Tabaddor, F. (Uniroyal Goodrich); Padovan, J. Source: Computers and Structures, v 40, n 2, Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis and ADINA, 1991, p 401407
ISSN: 00457949 CODEN: CMSTCJ
Conference: Proceedings of the 8th ADINA Conference, Jul 1719 1991, Cambridge, MA, USA
Abstract: In the modelling of elastomeric structures, soft composites, tires, etc., generally large deformations and significant localized material nonlinearity are encountered. During the solution of finite element models of such structure, indefinite stiffness characteristics are often encountered. Such behavior may be an outgrowth of a variety of factors, i.e. real physics, model degeneracies, boundary conditions, etc. This paper revisits various causal factors effecting definiteness. These considerations will help in modifying and relaxing some of the current convergence requirements on the global stiffness. This in turn, will result in a solution of more realistic models with potentially significant savings in CPU time.
Keywords: Structural Analysis  Computer Aided Analysis  Elastomers  Tires  Composite MaterialsDeformation  Mathematical Models  Mathematical TechniquesFinite Element Method
Secondary Keywords: Software Package ADINA  Global Stiffness  Local Stiffness  Finite Element Models
Nonlinear analysis of buckling behaviour of steel box girder components
Thimmhardy, E.G. (Concordia Univ) Source: Computers and Structures, v 40, n 2, Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis and ADINA, 1991, p 469474
ISSN: 00457949 CODEN: CMSTCJ
Conference: Proceedings of the 8th ADINA Conference, Jul 1719 1991, Cambridge, MA, USA
Abstract: Results of a large deflection nonlinear analysis of stiffened compression plates used in design of box girder bridges are presented. Both geometric and material nonlinearities were considered in the formulation. The soundness of the finite element model used in prediction of the buckling behaviour and ultimate strength of stiffened compression flanges is shown by comparison with experimental data.
Keywords: Beams and Girders  Buckling  Bridges, Box Girder  Plates  Mathematical Models  Mathematical TechniquesFinite Element Method
Secondary Keywords: Nonlinear Analysis  Buckling behavior  Steel Box Girder Components  Stiffened Compression Plates  Stiffened Compression Flanges
Prediction of the ultimate capacity of wide flange link beams under cyclic loading
Ramadan, T. (McMaster Univ); Ghobarah, A. Source: Computers and Structures, v 40, n 2, Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis and ADINA, 1991, p 409418
ISSN: 00457949 CODEN: CMSTCJ
Conference: Proceedings of the 8th ADINA Conference, Jul 1719 1991, Cambridge, MA, USA
Abstract: The objective of this investigation is to develop an analytical model to evaluate the seismic performance of the active links in eccentrically braced frames. The ADINA finite element computer code is used to gain insight into the behaviour of the links under cyclic loading. An available experimental setup and testing program was modelled. It was found that it is possible to develop a simple yet effective finite element approach to model the very complex behaviour of the links. Comparison between analytical predictions and available experimental results showed good agreement.
Keywords: Structural Frames  Earthquake Resistance  Beams and Girders  Mathematical Models  Computer Programming  Mathematical TechniquesFinite Element Method
Secondary Keywords: Wide Flange Link Beams  Eccentrically Braced Beams  Software Package ADINA  ADINA Finite Elecment Computer Code
Hierarchic modeling of plates
Babuska, I. (Univ of Maryland); Li, L. Source: Computers and Structures, v 40, n 2, Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis and ADINA, 1991, p 419430
ISSN: 00457949 CODEN: CMSTCJ
Conference: Proceedings of the 8th ADINA Conference, Jul 1719 1991, Cambridge, MA, USA
Abstract: The paper surveys some of the results related to approach of hierarchic modeling of the plate problems. The main ideas are explained and illustrated by numerical examples.
Keywords: Plates  Mathematical Models  Mathematical Models  Mathematical TechniquesFinite Element Method
Secondary Keywords: Hierarchic Modeling
Combining numerical analysis and engineering judgment to design deployable structures
Gantes, C. (Massachusetts Inst of Technology); Connor, J.J.; Logcher, R.D. Source: Computers and Structures, v 40, n 2, Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis and ADINA, 1991, p 431440
ISSN: 00457949 CODEN: CMSTCJ
Conference: Proceedings of the 8th ADINA Conference, Jul 1719 1991, Cambridge, MA, USA
Abstract: Deployable structures are prefabricated space frames that can be stored and transported in a compact folded configuration and then deployed rapidly into a load bearing configuration. The structures are stable and stressfree in the folded and the deployed configuration, but exhibit a highly nonlinear behavior during deployment. Therefore, their design process should include simulation of their response in two phases: in the deployed configuration under service loads, and during deployment. The first phase involves linear analysis while the second one requires a geometrically nonlinear finite element formulation. Both simulations can be very demanding in terms of computer storage requirements as the number of degrees of freedom increases. In addition, the nonlinear analysis is quite expensive because of the large number of load steps that are necessary in order to trace the complete loaddisplacement path. This paper first describes a set of numerical models that were used to simulate the exact structural behavior using the finite element program ADINA. Then, some simplified analytical and numerical models are proposed that can be applied in the preliminary design stage, or even for final design, in order to obtain approximate but satisfactory results at a much lower cost.
Keywords: Structural Frames  Computer Aided Design  Structural Analysis  Structural DesignLight Weight  Mathematical TechniquesFinite Element Method  Civil Engineering  BuildingsPrefabricated
Secondary Keywords: Numerical Analysis  Deployable Structures  Prefabricated Space Frames  Software Package ADINA
Studies of finite element procedures. The conjugate gradient and GMRES methods in ADINA and ADINAF
Tan, L.H. (ADINA R&D Inc); Bathe, K.J. Source: Computers and Structures, v 40, n 2, Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis and ADINA, 1991, p 441449
ISSN: 00457949 CODEN: CMSTCJ
Conference: Proceedings of the 8th ADINA Conference, Jul 1719 1991, Cambridge, MA, USA
Abstract: In this paper we present some experiences with the use of the conjugate gradient and GMRES iterative methods for the solution of large sparse systems of equations as recently implemented in ADINA and ADINAF for structural and fluid flow problems. The conjugate gradient method preconditioned with the incomplete Cholesky decomposition is used for the symmetric positive definite systems resulting from structural problems. For fluid flow problems, the systems of equations are nonsymmetric and indefinite. For these systems, the biconjugate gradient and GMRES algorithms with preconditioning by incomplete LU factorization are used. The performance of the iterative methods is compared with the direct solution methods. The results from our numerical experiments show that the use of these iterative methods for large sparse systems can lead to significant reductions in storage requirements and computation times, especially for nonlinear structural dynamics problems and threedimensional problems in general.
Keywords: Mathematical Techniques  Finite Element Method  Computer ProgrammingAlgorithms  Structural Analysis  Structural Design  Flow of Fluids  Computer Aided Analysis
Secondary Keywords: GMRES Iterative Methods  Software Package ADINA  Conjugate Gradient Method  Software Package ADINAF  Large Sparse Systems of Linear Equations  Symmetric Positive Definite Systems
System architectures for support of nonlinear finite element analysis
Cobb, C. (Texas Instruments Inc); Rolph, W.D.; Wilmarth, D. Source: Computers and Structures, v 40, n 2, Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis and ADINA, 1991, p 451461
ISSN: 00457949 CODEN: CMSTCJ
Conference: Proceedings of the 8th ADINA Conference, Jul 1719 1991, Cambridge, MA, USA
Abstract: A number of new systems technologies have been released over the last year which significantly affects the possibilities for designing finite element analysis facilities. Examples include workstations which have nearly the power of Cray 1 computers, virtual file systems which provide the equivalent of gigabytes of disc storage, high performance color hard copy capability, and advances in the software interoperability layers, such as XWindows, postscript, and NFS, which provide the opportunity for increased integration of these systems opportunities. The result is the opportunity to design finite element facilities which are dramatically different than facilities of even five years ago, and which offer the potential of significant improvement in analyst productivity. These technologies will be discussed, and the results of the internal testing of these technologies at Texas Instruments will be described. A reference facility with migration opportunities to the new technology will be detailed. Finally, thoughts on future systems technologies, and their impact on finite element facilities, will be discussed.
Keywords: Computer Architecture  Applications  Mathematical TechniquesFinite Element Method  Computers, Supercomputer  Computer Aided Analysis  Computer Workstations  Technology
Secondary Keywords: System Architectures  Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis  Software Interoperability Layers  Reference Facilities  Systems Technologies
Analysis of the fixation of total hip femoral components using ADINA
Harrigan, T.P. (Univ of Missouri at Kansas City) Source: Computers and Structures, v 40, n 2, Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis and ADINA, 1991, p 463468
ISSN: 00457949 CODEN: CMSTCJ
Conference: Proceedings of the 8th ADINA Conference, Jul 1719 1991, Cambridge, MA, USA
Abstract: In this study, the stresses within the cement and at the cementmetal interface have been studied using a largescale linear finite element analysis. Also, to assess the effects of cementprosthesis debonding, a 3D contact study was conducted which assessed the effect of several different areas of debonding between the prosthesis and the cement. The results of finite element analysis showed that the most likely sites for failure initiation are in the proximal anteromedial region and at the distal prosthesis tip. The loading situation which appeared to put the interface in the most danger for failure is that encountered in stair climbing. The stresses during normal walking did not seem as critical. Simulation of cementmetal debonding showed that a drastic increase in cement stresses occurred under both gait and stair climbing loads, and that stair climbing loads also produced much higher stresses with debonding. The effect of pores which often occur in bone cement was assessed using an analytical elasticity solution for a spherical void in an infinite medium, which allowed a calculation of the maximum tensile stress at the surface of a pore. These stresses were sufficient to initiate fractures near the distal tip of the implant in many cases, and near the proximal medial region of the implant in stair climbing. This study concurs to a remarkable degree with a study of wellfunctioning total hip replacements recovered at autopsy. The initiating failure events seen in the retrieved femoral components matched closely with the predicted areas of failure initiation. The conclusions of the study were that the cementprosthesis interface should be strengthened, porosity in bone cement should be minimized, and that total hip patient should not use their prosthetic hip when climbing stairs. (7 refs.)
Keywords: Prosthetics  Hip Prostheses  Computer ProgrammingAlgorithms  Stresses  Mathematical TechniquesFinite Element Method  AdhesivesBone Cement  Computer Software
Secondary Keywords: Software Package ADINA  Total Hip Femoral Components  Implants  Total Hip Replacements  Porosity
Updating of finite element models by means of measured information
Fritzen, C.P. (Univ of Kaiserslautern); Zhu, S. Source: Computers and Structures, v 40, n 2, Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis and ADINA, 1991, p 475486
ISSN: 00457949 CODEN: CMSTCJ
Conference: Proceedings of the 8th ADINA Conference, Jul 1719 1991, Cambridge, MA, USA
Abstract: The paper deals with the updating of computational models for elastomechanical vibrating structures. The updating procedure is based on system identification techniques using an incorrect model on the one hand and measured data of the real system on the other. Some approaches with different types of measurement data are discussed. For practical realization the finite element program ADINA is combined with a nonlinear optimization algorithm and measured transfer functions are used for the correction of the design parameters. The application of the procedure is demonstrated by means of three examples.
Keywords: Structural Analysis  Dynamic Response  Vibrations  Mathematical Models  Mathematical TechniquesFinite Element Method  Computer ProgrammingAlgorithms
Secondary Keywords: Software Package ADINA  Nonlinear Optimization Algorithms  Elastomechanical Vibrating Structures
Effect of thermal and residual stresses on the Jintegral elasticplastic fracture analysis
Kumar, V. (General Electric Co); Schumacher, B.I.; German, M.D. Source: Computers and Structures, v 40, n 2, Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis and ADINA, 1991, p 487501
ISSN: 00457949 CODEN: CMSTCJ
Conference: Proceedings of the 8th ADINA Conference, Jul 1719 1991, Cambridge, MA, USA
Abstract: This paper presents a comprehensive finite element study using the ADINA code with an objective towards developing a procedure for incorporating the effect of thermal/residual stresses in the Jintegral elasticplastic estimation method. Thermalelasticplastic finite element studies have been carried out for several twodimensional crack geometries including the centercracked plate, singleedge cracked plate and cylinders containing axial and circumferential flaws. Analyses are based on the J_{2} flow theory of plasticity and include material strain hardening. Results are obtained for various fracture parameters of interest such as J, COD and mouthopening displacement (MOD). The Jintegral is calculated by a virtual crack extension method, modified for thermalelasticplastic crack problems. It is shown that the effect of thermal/residual stresses is negligibly small when fully plastic conditions are achieved. Based upon these observations and using the superposition principle for the stress intensity factor K_{I} under smallscale yielding, a modified procedure for estimating fracture parameters under thermalelasticplastic conditions is formulated. The results thus obtained are compared against detailed finite element calculations, with an observed excellent agreement between the two sets of results. Various aspects of the cracktip behavior under the conditions of thermalelasticplastic deformation are also discussed.
Keywords: Fracture Mechanics  Computer Aided Analysis  Stresses  Elasticity  Plasticity  Computer Programming  Mathematical TechniquesFinite Element Method
Secondary Keywords: Software Package ADINA  Thermal Stresses  Residual Stresses  JIntegral  ElasticPlastic Fracture Analysis  Cracked Plates
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